Midterm 1 - Study Guide

Midterm 1 - Study Guide - BILD 18 Midterm#1 Study Guide...

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BILD 18: Midterm #1 Study Guide Week 1 - 3 Milankovitch cycle: Attempts to explain temperature and climate by using the Earth’s tilt, orbit and wobble; Explains the ice age. Keeling Curve: A curve taken from Mauna Loa. X-axis is years, Y-axis is CO2 concentration by ppm. The curving upwards and downwards is due to seasonal variation. Overall, the CO2 concentration is increasing. Sea level doesn’t rise when floating ice melts. No change in sea level due to floating ice melting in Arctic. . However, water level rises if ice is dropped into the ocean. Similar to ice coming from the land in Greenland & Antarctica. Ice Core : Scientists drill a long column of ice from the glacier to sample this time capsule of past climate conditions. It is similar to carbon dating trees. Ice cores have shown that global climate can change very rapidly, in some cases a matter of years. Before ice cores, many thought that climate change is very gradual. Fuel Cycle: When we consider the fuel cycle, we should not only focus on what comes out, but the entire process. The entire process is summarized as Mine Transport Process Waste Disposal Cole Yes Yes Yes Yes Nuclear Yes Yes Yes Yes Solar No No No Yes Wind No No No Yes Nuclear energy works by fission reactions. A nucleus hits Uranium-235, which forces more neutrons to fly off the U235 and amplify the effect. The neutrons must be in a system above its sub-critical mass or else neutrons will escape and the system will lose energy. Uranium must first be enriched from U238 to U235 before it can be used. Nuclear energy also creates a lot of waste. The U.S. considered using Yucca Mountain as a storage site for nuclear waste. Coal Nuclear Solar Wind Energy Payback Ratio 3rd 2nd 4 th (worst) 1 st (best) Most CO2 1 st (Most) 3rd 2nd 4 th (least)
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Released Total Land 2 nd 1 st (most) 3 rd 4 th (least) Most of the air we breathe in is Nitrogen gas. The troposphere is where we live. 10 kilometers above us is the stratosphere. In the troposphere, ozone can damage lung tissue and plants. In the stratosphere, ozone protects us from the sun’s harmful UV radiation. Most of O3 (ozone) resides in the stratosphere. Chapman Cycle: (drawing) After a few years traveling in the troposphere, CFC’s diffuse into the stratosphere, where eventually they undergo photochemical decomposition (UV-C), liberating halogen atoms. The halogen radicals can then react with ozone, converting the ozone to O2 and then regenerating the Cl radical and thus repeating the cycle. CFC is now replaced by HCFC. This only delays ozone destruction. Copenhagen accelerates the Montreal protocol, which is the agreed gradual phase out of CFC sale in the U.S. Why’s the ozone dent is over the Arctic is not as large or regular as is that over the Antarctic. Atmospheric temperatures over the Arctic do not fall as low and are not low for as long
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Midterm 1 - Study Guide - BILD 18 Midterm#1 Study Guide...

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