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Bild 18 - Guide

Bild 18 - Guide - Week 6 Factory Farming(industrial...

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Week 6 Factory Farming (industrial agriculture) started in the 1950’s but reached full capacity in the early 1980’s. It operates on the principles of economic efficiency and intensive confinement. Factory farming makes full use of chemical and technological manipulation. Animal welfare and severe pain are considered irrelevant, unless profits are affected. One person eats roughly 2700 animals in their life time. Eutrophication is the addition of chemicals such as nitrates or phosphates, from fertilizers, to an aquatic system. The addition of these chemicals serves as nutrients for algae and other phytoplankton in the water. This causes depletion of the oxygen in the water, which reduces fish and animal populations. Honey bees have a complex colonial lifestyle (superorganisms), with queens and workers sharing control and strong genetic and environmental influences Bees perform the following features: Recruitment communication (useful when food is scarce) Waggle dance (for food, water, resin, and nest sites) Stop signal (indicates danger, causes waggle dancers to stop dancing) Honey bees are important to us because they serve as pollinators and bioindicators (environmental degradation, military uses) Pollinators in danger due to Colony Collapse Disorder (pesticides, parasites, diseases, & mismanagement) How are bees exposed to pesticide? Role of water collection? In California, honey bees are responsible for pollination of approximately $1.5 billion in annual crops ($15 billion nationally). Hay and alfalfa seed production also require bee pollination. Bees change jobs as they age. Primarily, there are nurse bees and forager bees. Bees use the waggle dance to recruit for several different types of resources. Bee predators include birds, praying mantis, ambush bug, and spiders. Honey bees also rob from each other. Hypothesis: Does imidacloprid alter bees’ foraging preferences? In an experiment, scientists used the chemical imidacloprid to test their effets on bees. Bees are estimated to have exposure levels from nectar of around 2 to 3 ng per bee. (1.1-4.3 ng/bee, Rortais et al. 2005). James Nieh and his team used very low doses of imidacloprid (0.216 and 2.16 ng/bee) compared to LD50 average of 21.85 ng/bee (Schmuck 2001). It was determined that imidacloprid was highly toxic to bees. Imidacloprid affects honey bees by interfering with
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receptors necessary for cognitive functions. Bees affected by this insecticide showed significant decrease in response to sucrose, a natural sugar that is part of their metabolism. Week #7 The tobacco strategy is a strategy used by opponents to impede progress to address global warming. It is based on the same strategy that tobacco companies use to use to get the government from imposing regulations. For decades, the tobacco industry challenged the scientific evidence of the adverse health effects of tobacco and supported libertarian groups that argued the same. These same groups similarly argued against the evidence concerning ozone depletion and then the burning of fossil fuels - to keep the government out of free enterprise.
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Bild 18 - Guide - Week 6 Factory Farming(industrial...

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