Ch51_Lecture-Spr11

Ch51_Lecture-Spr11 - 51 Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption

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Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption http://www.nigeldennis.com/stock/images/mammals/species/giraffe/25955.jpg 51
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51 Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption • 51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? • 51.2 How Do Animals Ingest and Digest Food? • 51.3 How Does the Vertebrate Gastrointestinal System Function? • 51.4 How Is the Flow of Nutrients Controlled and Regulated? http://www.allthepages.org/images/blog/bird_feeding2sm-may06.jpg
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? Animals are heterotrophs derive nutrition by eating other organisms Autotrophs can synthesize their necessary nutrients heterotrophs depend on this synthesis and have adapted to take advantage of it
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? Energy needs can be measured Measures of heat energy: calorie is amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 C A kilocalorie (kcal) = 1,000 calories Calorie (Cal) is the same as a kilocalorie and = 1,000 calories www.parrinst.com/dynamic_images Calorimeter used to measure energy content
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? Metabolic rate measures overall energy needs met by food intake and digestion Foods that provide energy are fats, carbohydrates, and proteins Energy budgets are constructed by comparing calories consumed and calories expended NE p = net energy for growth, fattening, work, milk, wool, hair, reproduction NE m = net energy for basal metabolism, voluntary activites, regulate body temp. www.fhsu.edu/biology/ranpers/rm/
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Figure 51.2 Food Energy and How We Use It
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? Animals must store food between meals Carbohydrates stored in liver and muscle cells as glycogen — enough for about one day’s energy needs Fat stores more energy per gram and with little water, making it more compact www.pathology.vcu.edu/WirSelfInst/image Muscle fibers with glycogen storage vacuoles www.bluegrass.kctcs.edu/LCC/BSN/BIO/BiologyLabs/BIO137/137Tissues Adipose tissue – cells almost completely filled with fat vacuole
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? Undernourished too little food taken in and metabolism of body’s own molecules begins Protein is lost rapidly to protein synthesis Glycogen and fat are broken down Decreased protein can lead to edema , a classic sign of kwashiorkor
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Figure 51.3 The Course of Starvation Decreased protein can lead to edema classic sign of kwashiorkor Impairs body functions and eventually leads to death
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? Overnourished more food taken in than needed excess stored as increased body mass Glycogen reserves are built up Extra carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are converted to body fat www.mypkhome.com/fatcat/ “Fat cat”
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food? Some species use seasonal overnourishment to survive periods when food is unavailable In humans, overnourishment can be serious health hazard Increases risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, diabetes, and other disorders www.outbackphoto.com/the_bag/uwes_canon_lenses_2004 Golden-mantled ground squirrel preparing for hiberation
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51.1 What Do Animals Require from Food?
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course BSC 2011 taught by Professor Presley during the Spring '11 term at FAU.

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Ch51_Lecture-Spr11 - 51 Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption

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