Gen_Bio_II_study_guide_ch_22-S9th - What are homoplasies...

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Dr. Tyler General Biology II – Study Guide for Chapter 22 Define the following: Analogous Ancestral traits Binomial nomenclature Clade Cladogram Class Consensus tree Convergent evolution Derived trait Domain Evolutionary reversal Family Genus Grade Homologous Homoplasy Ingroup Kingdom Maximum likelihood method Mitochondrial DNA Molecular clock Monophyletic Morphology Node Order Outgroup Paleontology Paraphyletic Parsimony principle Phylogeny Phylum Polyphyletic Root Selection pressures Shared traits Sister species Species Species epithet Synapomorphies Systematic Taxon (taxa) Taxonomy What is a phylogeny and how is it used to study the evolution of organisms? Compare and contrast the terms shared traits, ancestral traits, derived traits, and synapomorphies. What information does each type contain when attempting to understand phylogenies? Contrast homologous and analogous structures. Give clear examples of each.
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Unformatted text preview: What are homoplasies and how can they obscure evolutionary relationships? • Briefly outline how one contructs a phylogeny. What is the purpose of the outgroup? • Explain how parsimony and Occam’s razor are used as a guiding principles when determining the “best” phylogenetic hypothesis for a taxon. • What types of characters are used in constructing a cladogram. What are the limitations of each type? • What is a consensus tree, and how can it be tested or improved? • What are some practical applications of phylogenies? • How is a “molecular clock” used in constructing phylogenies and how is it calibrated? • What are the rules of taxonomic nomenclature? What are the different levels used and in what sequence? • Contrast monophyletic, paraphyletic and polyphyletic taxa and give examples of each. Which is the most valuable in phylogenies? Why?...
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course BSC 2011 taught by Professor Presley during the Spring '11 term at FAU.

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