sigma and pi bonds

sigma and pi bonds - sigma and pi bonds (No Alkenes) ....

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sigma and pi bonds (No Alkenes) ... sigma and pi bonds is a repeat of general chemistry bonding hybrid orbitals: sp3, sp2, sp and respective geometries o ... hybrid orbitals is a repeat of general chemistry bonding valence shell electron pair repulsion and the prediction of shapes of molecules (e.g., NH3, H2O, CO2) o ... VSEPR is a repeat of general chemistry bonding structural formulas for molecules involving H, C, N, O, F, S, P, Si, Cl # valence e - Usual # bonds Typically found in H 1 1 Hydrocarbon (alkane, alkene, alkyne), hydride. All organic compounds contain hydrogen. C 4 4 Alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic rings. All organic compounds contain carbon. N 5 3 Amine, amide, imine, hydrazone, oxime, nitro compound, diazo compound, nitrile/cyanide, azide O 6 2 Alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, acyl halide, anhydride, amide, ester, ozone F 7 1 Fluoride S 6 2 or 6 Thiol, sulfide, sulfate, sulfite P 5 3 or 5 Phosphorous compound, phosphate, phosphite Si 4 4 Silane, silicon dioxide Cl 7 1 Chloride, hypochlorous, chlorous, chlorate, perchlorate o H and C
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o N o O
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o F o S o P
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o S o Cl delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules
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o o Resonance structures result from electrons not being fixed in position (that's why you "push" electrons when drawing resonance structures). o When electrons are not fixed in position, they are delocalized electrons. o For all practical purposes, resonance and electron delocalization mean the same thing. o In ions, resonance and electron delocalization occurs to "distribute" the charge around. o In molecules, resonance and electron delocalization occurs in aromatic rings and conjugated double bonds. Multiple bonding (No Alkenes) its effect on bond length and bond energies o Multiple bonding decreases bond length. o Multiple bonding increases bond energy. rigidity in molecular structure o Multiple bonding increases rigidity in molecular structure. o Single bonds can rotate, but double and triple bonds can't. o Even partial double bonds like those found in the peptide bond prevents free rotation. Stereochemistry of covalently bonded molecules
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isomers o Same molecular formula, different structural formula. o "Same in writing, different in drawing. .." o structural isomers Structural isomers have the same molecular formula, but different connectivity. Positional isomers: structural isomers that have the same functional groups positioned differently. Constitutional isomers: structural isomers that have different functional groups. o geometric isomers
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Geometric isomers have the same molecular formula, same connectivity, but have different orientation across a double bond.
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sigma and pi bonds - sigma and pi bonds (No Alkenes) ....

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