PDAIntroduction

# PDAIntroduction - An Introduction to Pushdown Automata COT...

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An Introduction to Pushdown Automata COT 4210 Summer 2006 Dr. David A. Workman School of EE and CS

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July 12, 2006 (c) Dr. David A. Workman 2 Definition A (nondeterministic) PDA is a 6-tuple, M = (Q, Σ , Γ , δ , q 0 , Z 0 , A). Q = finite set of states Σ = input alphabet Γ = stack alphabet q 0 Q (initial state) Z 0 Γ (initial stack symbol) BOS A Q (set of accept states) δ rel : Q × ( Σ∪Λ ) × Γ→ Q × Γ * (partial relation) Finite Control (read head)(advances one symbol on each read operation) a 1 a 2 a 3 ….. a k …. a n (string over the input alphabet) q stack Z top Z 0 String over the stack alphabet Γ Configuration of M = ( q , a k …a n , Z top …Z 0 )
July 12, 2006 (c) Dr. David A. Workman 3 Languages Accepted by PDA Move Relation on Configurations: (q , x, Zw) M (q', x, γ w) if and only if (q', γ ) δ (q, Λ , Z) //stack move (q , ax, Zw) M (q', x, γ w) if and only if (q', γ ) δ (q, a, Z) a ∈Σ // read move L stk (M) = { x Σ * | (q 0 , x, Z 0 ) M * (q', λ ,λ ) } L ste (M) = { x Σ * | (q 0 , x, Z 0 ) M * (q', λ , θ ), for some q' A } 1 2 3 (a,Z 0 ) a (a, a) aa (b, a) λ (b, a) λ ( Λ , Z 0 ) λ L stk (M) = { a n b n | n 0 } 1 2 3 (a,Z 0 ) aZ 0 (a, a) aa (b, a) λ (b, a) λ L ste (M) = { a n b n | n 0 } ( Λ , Z 0 ) λ

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July 12, 2006 (c) Dr. David A. Workman 4 L stk (M) = L ste (M’) M accepts by empty stack q0 p0 M’ accepts by final state ' 0 0 ' 0 / ) , ( Z Z Z Λ q1 ' 0 ' 0 / ) , ( Z Z Λ } { } { ' } , { ' 0 ' 0 ' Z A p Q Q Γ = Γ = =
July 12, 2006 (c) Dr. David A. Workman 5 L ste (M) = L stk (M’) M accepts by final state q0 p0 M’ accepts by empty stack ' 0 0 ' 0 / ) , ( Z Z Z Λ q1 ' Z / ) , ( Γ Λ where Z λ } { ' } , { ' 0 ' 0 ' Z A p Q Q Γ = Γ Φ = = ' Z / ) , ( Γ Λ where Z

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July 12, 2006 (c) Dr. David A. Workman 6 PDA Examples L = { x {a, b}* | |x| a = |x| b } 1 2 (a,Z 0 ) aZ 0 (a, a) aa (b, b) bb (b, a) λ (a, b) λ ( Λ , Z 0 ) Z 0 (b,Z 0 ) bZ 0 Accept by final state 1 2 (a,Z 0 ) aZ 0 (a, a) aa (b, b) bb (b, a) λ (a, b) λ ( Λ , Z 0 ) Z 0 (b,Z 0 ) bZ 0 Accept by empty stack 1' ( Λ , Z' 0 ) Z 0 Z' 0 3 ( Λ , Z 0 ) λ ( Λ , Z' 0 ) λ
July 12, 2006 (c) Dr. David A. Workman 7 PDA Examples L = { a0 n 1 n | n 0 } { b0 n 1 2n | n 0 } 5 2 (a, Z 0 ) a empty stack 1 3 (b, Z b (0, a) 0 (0, 0) 00 (0, 0) 00 (0, b) 0 4 ( Λ ,a) λ ( Λ ,b) λ (1, 0 ) λ (1, 0 ) λ 6 (1, 0 ) λ (1, 0 ) 0 (1, 0 ) 0

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July 12, 2006 (c) Dr. David A. Workman 8 PDA Examples L = { a0 n 1 n | n 0 } { b0 n 1 2n | n 0 } Accept by final state 5 2 (a, Z 0 ) a 1 ( Λ , Z' 0 ) Z 0 Z' 0 3 (b, Z b (0, a) 0 (0, 0) 00 (0, 0) 00 (0, b) 0 4 ( Λ ,a) λ ( Λ ,b) λ (1, 0 ) λ (1, 0 ) λ 6 (1, 0 ) λ (1, 0 ) 0 (1, 0 ) 0 1' ( Λ
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PDAIntroduction - An Introduction to Pushdown Automata COT...

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