Welcome dear students! Welcome to our Atatürk’s Principles and the History of Revolution Distance Learning Course. The subject of our 2nd lesson is the “Purpose of the Turkish Revolution and the Reasons that Prepared the Turkish Revolution” We’ll first touch upon the concept of revolution and then certain concepts associated with the concept of revolution. Definition of Reform Reform: The word reform (inkılap) which is derived from the Arabic word “heart” (kalb) means transforming from one state to another, transformation and revolution. Reforms can be in many areas such as industrial reforms, cultural reforms or social reforms. Revolution:These are defined as fundamental and important changes that occur in a very short period of time. Insurrection:Insurrection is a widespread movement performed in order to change the current political structure of a country and to eliminate the order of government, performed by force without consulting the legal rules pertaining to such action. Improvements:This is the plural of improvement and means betterments and regulations. Westernization: The Westernization concept in the Ottoman Empire started in the XVIII the century.” Modernization:The word “moderne” which has been taken from the French means in conformance with the contemporary and means attempting to internalize the consciousness, technique, thought and philosophy of the age.
Definition of Atatürk’s Turkish Reforms and the specification of the purpose and attributes of such; Atatürk has defined the Turkish Reforms: as “demolishing the institutions that have set back the Turkish Nation in the recent centuries and to replace them with new institutions that will allow the nation to progress in accordance with the requirements of the highest modern requirements.” Atatürk has defined the Purpose of Turkish Reforms: as turning the Turkish society into a modern society in terms of both its meaning and form. Atatürk specifies the features of the Turkish Reforms as: 1. The Turkish reforms have a greater scope than the meaning of a revolution. 2. The current shape of the state is its most developed form that eliminates the previous forms. 3. The common bond for allowing the nation to preserve its existence is the bond of the Turkish Nation instead of religious affiliation or sects. 4. The nation adopts contemporary civilization principles in all areas of endeavor. 5. In the arrangements performed by the reforms, the living requirements of the human beings have been taken into consideration. 6. The Turkish reforms are like no other. THE RESONS CONSTITUTING THE FOUNDATION FOR THE DEMOLISHING OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE RISING OF THE TURKISH REFORMS There are numerous reasons that lay the foundation of the demolishment of the Ottoman Empire. We cannot associate the demolishment with a single reason. These reasons are generally studied under 2 titles namely Domestic and Foreign Reasons.