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ANTH 101 - 19:00 Lecture Overview of Anthropology Four Sub...

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ANTH 101- Introduction to Cultural Anthropology 19:00 Lecture, 1-12-11 Overview of Anthropology Four Sub Fields What is Anthropology? The study of humans and ancestors It is holistic and historic We look at the past, present, and future We look at biology and culture Has a unique cross culture perspective Society-organized life in groups Ethnology- one sub field of cultural anthropology that is comparative. (e.g. comparing different cultures’ religions and food patterns) Ethnography- descriptive , account of a community, society, or culture based on data collected during fieldwork Cultures- learned traditions and customs, that govern beliefs and behaviors Culture is not entirely biological, but the ability to use it rests in hominid biology
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Four subfields of anthropology: Cultural anthropology Archaeological anthropology Biological or physical anthropology Linguistic anthropology Archaeology: reconstructs, describes, and interprets past human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains. Not restricted to prehistoric societies. Archaeological record- social and cultural changes over time Historical archaeology Modern Archaeology/ Garbology Biological : Biological diversity across time and space Paleoanthropologists: human evolution via fossil record, genetics, growth and development Linguistics: Language in social and cultural context across space and time Historical linguistics: reconstruct ancient languages and study variation through time Sociolinguistics: relationship between social and linguistic variation and perception and patterns of thought in different cultures
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Cultural Anthropology: Ethnography and ethnology to study human societies and cultures Ethnography is the describing of events, while ethnology takes this information and compares it to other cultures. Cultural anthropology and sociology: Formerly, sociology focused on “western” societies while anthropology looked at “exotic” societies Cultural anthropological methodologies have primarily been in depth and qualitative Applied Anthropology: To identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems Cultural Relativity: all cultural activities have an inherent value in some context Lecture, 1-19-11 Chapter 2: The Concept of Culture Culture defined: Culture can be broadly defined as the beliefs and behaviors shared by members of a social learning.
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There are 5 characteristics of culture 1. Culture is shared Culture is a feature of group life Members of a group share a common identity A society is an organization of individuals involved in cooperative relationships. 2. Culture is Learned Enculturation vs. Instinct Enculturation- the process of transmitting cultural information from one generation to the next by social learning Most animals species have behavior, although complex, is by instinct not culture World view- the culturally shaped way on sees and interprets the world Binary Oppositions- imposing order on a chaotic universe, conceptual oppositions (not entirely opposite sometimes)
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