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04339373 - Methods for high power EM pulse measurement Petr...

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Methods for high power EM pulse measurement Petr Drexler Department of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering, Brno University of Technology Kolejní 2906/4, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic [email protected] Pavel Fiala Department of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering, Brno University of Technology Kolejní 2906/4, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic [email protected] Abstract There are some suitable methods for the measurement of ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses that can be generated by high power pulsed generators. The measurement methods properties have to correspond to the fact whether we want to measure pulses of voltage, current or free-space electromagnetic wave. The need for specific measurement methods occured by the development of high power microwave pulse generator [1]. Applicable methods are presented in this paper. The method utilizing Faraday’s induction law allows the measurement of generated current. For the same purpose the magneto-optic method can be utilized, with its advantages. For measurement of output microwave pulse of the generator, the calorimetric method was designed and realized. I. I NTRODUCTION Fig. 1. shows the basic principle of microwave pulsed power generator. It consists of three stages – the primary source of electrical energy, the pulsed power generator and the microwave pulsed power generator (load in the Fig. 1). The primary source supplies the pulsed power generator, which ensures the pulse current amplification. After transformation to the high voltage and pulse shaping (not shown in Fig. 1), the pulse is fed to the microwave pulsed power generator. The detailed description of pulsed power generation can be found in [2]. For example, the peak level of current pulse achieves the value of I p = 100 kA with the pulse duration t d = 70 µ s typically in the second stage. After high voltage transformation and using pulse shaping element we can get voltage pulse with the peak value U p = 400 kV and with the rise time t r = 0,1 ns. Following microwave source (vircator [3]) emits electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The characteristic of EMP is high power level (P max = 250 MW [1]) and very short time duration (t p < 1, 60 > ns). For the pulsed power generator evaluation is essential to obtain an idea about the qualitative and quantitative processes during the generator operation. Important measurement points are shown in Fig. 1. Special requirements for measurement methods have to be considered because of the specific pulses properties. load power current/voltage measurement point 1 current/voltage measurement point 2 µ W power measurement point 3 primary source explosive detonation connected coil turns Figure 1. The basic principle of microwave pulsed power generator.
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