Online_Lecture_17

Online_Lecture_17 - PHIL 4: Introduction to Ethics Out of t...

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Unformatted text preview: PHIL 4: Introduction to Ethics Out of t e crooked T mber of humani no s aight t ing was ever made . Immanuel Kan 1 John Stuart Mills Utilitarianism ( IV ) 2 From Last Time The Utility Monster ( UM ) as an objection to sum- ranking welfarism Worries about the ( UM ) objection For example what about the displeasur e caused by unequal distribution? For example, what if the UM is a utility monster precisely because she is in greater need? 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Happs Aggregate Happiness: 4 x 10 = 40 happs U n i t s o f H a p p i n e s s Students 4-12 12 24 36 48 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Happs Aggregate Happiness: (9 x -2) + 60 = 42 happs U n i t s o f H a p p i n e s s Students 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-12 12 24 36 48 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (A) Which option ough t I to choose? ( If you say ( A ) , you have rejected sum- ranking welfarism. ) 40 Happs (B) 42 Happs 6 From Last Time The Utility Monster as an objection to sum- ranking welfarism Exploration of the utilitarians view of moral obligation and permissibility Objection: If AU makes the maximization of total happiness mora # y obligatory as Mill seems to do then it seems to demand too much Possible counter: maximization of happiness is not the goal, but rather avoiding a reductio n of happiness 7 Benthams Negative NAU Since it is Mills GHP that seems too demanding, some utilitarians have ditched it in favor of Benthams negative formulation Bentham says, An action may be said to be conformable to the principle of utility [ happiness ] ...when the tendency it has to augment the happiness of the community is greater than any it has to diminish it. 8 On Benthams view were calling it negative act- utilitarianis m an action is wrong if and only if it would ( i ) reduce aggregate happiness and ( ii...
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Online_Lecture_17 - PHIL 4: Introduction to Ethics Out of t...

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