Online_Lecture_16

Online_Lecture_16 - PHIL 4 Introduction to Ethics “ Out...

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Unformatted text preview: PHIL 4: Introduction to Ethics “ Out of t e crooked T mber of humani ¡ no s ¢ aight t ing was ever made .” — Immanuel Kan £ 1 John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism ( III ) 2 From Last Time ❖ Problem I : The Swine Objection ❖ Mill’s Response: higher and lower pleasures ❖ Worries about Mill’s response ❖ Problem II : Is it really true that happiness = pleasure? ❖ Nozick’s experience machine ❖ Both of these worries take aim at Mill’s hedonism. What about the other two elements of act- utilitarianism: do they present any further di ffi culties? 3 Act- Consequentialism ❖ Morality is “purely a function of the consequences of actions...no action is intrinsically right or wrong...” ( Barcalow ) ❖ Since act- utilitarianism is a version of consequentialism, it will face all the di ffi culties we’ve discussed earlier 4 Chop- Up- Chuck 5 Angry- Mob 6 Sum- Ranking Welfarism ❖ SRW: the best outcome is the one that produces the greatest amount of overall pleasure ( considering equally everyone involved ) ❖ Put di f erently: we ought to commit the action that maximizes a ! regate happiness ❖ Surely this is a rock- solid principle, right? ❖ On reFection, even this element of act- utilitarianism seems to pose a problem. Consider: 7 The Utility Monster ❖ Assume there are 10 people in class and I decide to give away $ 100. ❖ It seems the best thing for me to do — the fair way of doing it — would be for me to distribute the money evenly such that every student receives $ 10. ❖ This amounts to a nice bit of utility for you, but it’s not overwhelming. ( It’s barely a Freebirds run. ) ❖ Let’s say that each person gets 5 happs from receiving the money. The total aggregate happiness, then, is 50. Like this: 8 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Happs Aggregate Happiness: 5 x 10 = 50 happs U n i t s o f H a p p i n e s s Students 9 The Utility Monster...
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This note was uploaded on 06/09/2011 for the course PHIL 4 taught by Professor Chandler during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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Online_Lecture_16 - PHIL 4 Introduction to Ethics “ Out...

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