ANTH Final Lecture - Lecture,11910 Toknow:

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Lecture, 11-9-10 To know: Biological and Archaeological characteristics of modern humans vs.  Neanderthals. Major changes and arch-evidenced shifts at middle-paleolithic and Mesolithic. The Upper Paleolithic, the Mesolithic, and Foragers First Neanderthal Discoveries: First discovered in 1830 Engis cave in Belgium This was a skull of a young child They did not pay attention to it much at the time. It was noted that this skull had odd morphology, but it was not completely  different so there was not much effort put into the research. In 1848 however, Forbes Quarry in Gibralter gave up many skeletons that had the  same morphology as the young skeleton. Germany’s Neander Valley (or Tal): 1856 Near Dusseldorf Namesake site for the Neanderthals
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Differences of Neanderthals: Thick bony ridges over eyes Low, sloping forehead Without a chin Large, broad nose Thank and robust limbs Brain as large or larger than modern humans Today we know: Neanderthal posture and gait was not very different from our own Humans with the full range of Neanderthal features lived- throughout Europe,  South of the glaciers and in Israel and Iraq May have descended from fossil population 230,000 ya Neanderthals lived 28,000 ya Variable temperatures More Neanderthals: Stocky bodies conserve heat Mousterian tool set was first found with Neanderthals These were large thick flakes Many variations of these artifacts (scrapers, bruins, borers)
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Also used by early modern humans Also used more advanced types of tools 160,000 year old fossilized skulls uncovered in Ethiopia are oldest anatomically  modern humans What did Neanderthals and early humans eat?: Small to medium animals including horses, red deer, wild cattle, reindeer, wild 
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This note was uploaded on 06/08/2011 for the course ANTH 106 taught by Professor Dr.sharynjones during the Fall '10 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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ANTH Final Lecture - Lecture,11910 Toknow:

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