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Bio Final Study Guide P.1 - CHAPTER 1 BIOLOGY Biology study...

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CHAPTER 1 BIOLOGY Biology study of life Homeostasis only living organisms maintains systems in an acceptable range Cell most basic unit of life Cell Theory all cells come from pre-existing cells 2 Main types of Cells: 1. Prokaryotic: bacteria, unicellular -kingdom: monera 2. Eukaryotic: multicellular, can be unicellular -kingdom: protista=unicellular animalia, fungi, plantae= multicellular Prokaryotic and eukaryotic both have ribosomes make RNA Taxonomy: Kingdom (most inclusive) Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (lease inclusive) King Phillip came over for great soup. Scientific Method: 1. Review accumulated data 2. Form hypothesis 2 types of hypothesis: 1. Null (H0) – no difference 2. Alternative (Ha) – differenc Homeostasis: maintaining a living system within an acceptable range Homeostatic Process: body keeps temperature stable (sweating, etc.) Cell: most basic structure in living organisms – come from preexisting cells Pro/eu: pro has no mitochondria Taxonomy: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Ho - no difference Ha - difference Hypothesis: falsifiable, testable CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY 4 elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen – 96% of planet Valence: how many electrons you need Valence Electrons: how many electrons you have Octet Rule: 8 electrons outer shell for stability H- needs 1; has 7 O- needs 2; has 6 N- needs 3; has 5
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C- needs 4; has 4 Types of Bonds: 1. Covalent sharing of electrons; Polar: unequal ex. H2O; Non-Polar: equal sharing Electronegativity causes polar covalent bond The ability of one atom to pull electrons to another atom 2. Ionic Bond transferring electrons negatively charged – N ion (taking) 3. Hydrogen Bonds between molecules Isotopes same number of protons, different number of neutrons (pet scans) Isomer molecule same molecular formula, different shape and structure CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGY Cohesion molecules stick together Adhesion molecules stick to something else Prop of water high everything Surface tension: level of difficulty involved in breaking or stretching the surface of a liquid Specific Heat: amount of energy required to change 1g of a substance by 2 degrees C. Heat of vaporization: amount of energy required to liquid to gas *water expands when freezes- less dense Alzhamers & Parkinsons caused by proteins folding Thalidovide help with morning sickness but cause birth defects Hydrophilic water loving polar Hydrophobic water hating non polar Buffer minimize change in pH 1-6 7 8-14 Acid Neutral Base [H] [OH] pH = 5 [H] = .0001 pH4 [H] = 1 x 10^ -5 POH = 10 [OH] = 1 x 10^ -9 [OH] 1 x 10^ -10 POH = 9 The pH of the pool yesterday was 10. Kimmy dumped in Cl. Now pH is 3. 10 3 = 7 H ions increasing 10^7 OH ions decreasing 10^7 Always positive exponent Point mutations (sickle cells) nucleotide changed codes for a defferent amino acid.
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