Bio Final Study Guide P.2

Bio Final Study Guide P.2 - Chapter 17 Transcription and...

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Chapter 17 Transcription and translation- make DNA into polypeptide Eukaryotes- uncoupled, Prokaryotes- coupled Transcription- o template= DNA o make DNA into mRNA o location- nucleus o starts at promoter(TATA box) Transcription Initiation Complex- RNA polymerase and transcription factors bound to DNA RNA polymerase: unwinds DNA adds nucleotides 5’-3’ 5’ cap added to 5’ end, Poly-A-Tail added to 3’ Introns- non coded regions Exons- coded regions RNA Splicing- introns removed, exons slide together, done by snRNPS Translation- o create polypeptide using mRNA as template o template- mRNA o make mRNA into polypeptide (protein) o location = cytoplasm o 3 tRNA sites on ribosomal subunits P-site- carries growing polypeptides chain A-site- carries amino acids E-site- tRNA exit STEP : Initiation- o translation initiation complex- mRNA o 2 ribosomal subunits o initiator tRNA in P Site Elongation-
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o code recognition tRNA binds to A site o peptide bond formation- bond forms between Polypeptide bond from P Site and amino acid at A Site Termination- o group of 3 nucleotide that code for amino acids Mutations- o silent- codes for same amino acid o missense- codes for different amino acid o nonsense- encodes for a pre-mature stop codon, protein is incomplete Chapter 19 Viruses- o cannot reproduce by themselves o need a living host o made up of nucleic acids (genome) protein coat (capsid) o particle NOT a cell Capsid- protein shell Capsomeres- proteins subunits that make up capsid Viral envelope- membrane that covers some capsids Lytic cycle- how virulent viruses reproduce, host cell dies o Phage attaches to cell surface (complimentary fit) o Phages inject DNA o Enzymes destroy host DNA o Phage genome directs host to produce phage components (DNA, Proteins) o Spontaneous self- assembly o Call lyses (enzyme digests bacterial cell wall, fluids enter, cell bursts)
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Bio Final Study Guide P.2 - Chapter 17 Transcription and...

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