BIOLOGY SI REVIEW - BIOLOGY SI REVIEW Chapter 1...

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BIOLOGY SI REVIEW Chapter 1 Homeostasis: maintaining a living system wit in an acceptable range Most basic structure: cell. All cells must come from pre-existing cells. Eukaryotic cells have mitochondria Prokaryotes don’t have mitochondria or nucleus Taxonomy= naming system Most inclusive to least inclusive: kingdom phylum class order family genus species Null hypothesis : no difference/ alternate hypothesis: there will be a difference Hypothesis will always be testable and can never be fully proven Chapter 2 Valence= how many you need Valence electrons= how many you have HONC1234 valence rule (how many you need) Covalent- sharing electrons (nonpolar and polar) Ionic- transfer of electrons Hydrogen- transfer between molecules Electronegativity- ability to pull apart electrons from another atom Cation- positive charge Anion- negative charge Isotopes- same number protons different number neutrons Chapter 3 Cohesion- two of one thing stick together Adhesion- two different things stick together
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Surface tension- level of difficulty involves with breaking or stretching the surface of liquid Specific heat capacity- change in temp ( 1 gram/I degree celcius) Heat of vaporization- amount of energy needed to convert something from a liquid to a gas. (WATER HAS HIGH OF EVERYTHING) Water expands when freezes Water is a solvent pH= -log[H+] know examples buffer is something that resists change in pH chapter 4 Functional Groups: Hydroxyl group- OH Carbonyl- CO Carboxyl- COOH Amino Acid- NH2 Phosphate- PO4 Sulfihydryll- SH Menthyll- CH3 *isomer= same molecular formula but different shape Types of isomers: 1. Structural- variation in assortment 2. Geometric- variation around a double bond 3. Enantiamers- 2 nonsuperimposable mirror images Chapter 5 Hydrolysis- break something apart by using water Condensation synthesis- taking out water to put something together Lipids: carbon and hydrogen (CH) -saturated: solid at room temperature. Single bonds.
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-unsaturated: liquid at room temp. double bonds Carbohydrates: CHO Proteins: CHON make up 50% of cell’s weight Amino acids are the building blocks of protein . Each amino acid is made up of an amino and a carboxyl group r-group is the identiy of an amino acid Nucleic acids: CHONP. These are RNA and DNA ( ATCG/ AUCG) LEVELS OF PROTIEN STRUCTURE: 1. Primary- peptide bonds, unique sequence of amino acids 2. Secondary- hydrogen bonds. Coiling and folding also called alpha helix and beta plated sheet 3. Tertiary- R-groups. THIS IS WHERE PROTIEN FIRST BECOMES FUNTIONAL 4. Quaternary- 2 or more tertiaries stuck together. *4 ways to denature (breakdown) protein: Heat, pH, Salt concentration, and Chemical Enzymes= speed up reactions by lowering activation energy. They are not affected by reactions at all. Chapter 6
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This note was uploaded on 06/07/2011 for the course BSC 2010c taught by Professor Janewaterman,pamelathomas during the Spring '07 term at University of Central Florida.

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BIOLOGY SI REVIEW - BIOLOGY SI REVIEW Chapter 1...

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