SI FINAL review

SI FINAL review - Eukaryotes: -Plants, animals, fungi,...

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Eukaryotes: -Plants, animals, fungi, protista -Membrane bound nucleus -Complex organelles -Double stranded DNA Prokaryotes -Bacteria -Lack organelles -Have many cell walls -Singe stranded DNA What is the organelle that both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have in common? -Ribosomes CH: fats CHO: carbohydrates CHON: amino acids/proteins CHONP: nucleic acids Functional groups: -Hydroxyl: OH -Phosphate: PO4/ OPO3 is ionized form
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-Amino: NH2 -Carboxyl: COOH -Carbonyl: CO -Sulfhydryl: SH -LOOK UP STRUCTURE IN YOUR BOOK Valence: -Denotes the bonding capacity of an atom -Number of electrons needed to fill outer shell Valence electrons: -The number of unpaired electrons in the outermost orbital pH tips: -If she asks for pH, respond with a whole number. pH=7 -If she asks for the concentration of a solution, respond with scientific notation -Concentration= 10-7 M Covalent bonds: -Electrons are shared in covalent bonds -Polar: one hogs electrons -Nonpolar: they share electrons
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Classification system: -Kingdom -Phylum -Class -Order -Family -Genus -Species Kindly Professors Cannot Often Fail Good Students Ionic bonds: -Involve transfer of electrons -Normally occurs between atoms with charges -Charged atoms are called ions Electronegativity: -Pulls electrons toward it a higher percentage of the time -“electron hogs” Hydrogen bonds: -A weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
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-H20, for example: oxygen is partially electronegative, hydrogen partially electropositive Primary structure of proteins: -Protein’s unique sequence of amino acids Secondary structure: -Repeatedly coiled or folded segments of a polypeptide chain -Beta pleated, alpha helix -Coils/pleats held together with hydrogen bonds Tertiary structure: -Overall 3D shape of a polypeptide and results from interactions between amino acid R groups Quaternary structure: -More than one polypeptide chain Protein denaturation: -Protein structure is destroyed/has structure problem -A process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, becoming inactive Nucleus: -Composed of nucleolus, nuclear envelope, and chromatin -Nuclear envelope encloses nucleus, porous, continuous with endoplasmic reticulum
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-Nucleolus is a nommebranous organelle involved in production of ribosomes, can be more than one per cell -Chromatin is DNA/chromosomes Endoplasmic reticulum: -Network of membranous sacs and tubes -Active in membrane synthesis -Has rough and smooth regions; rough ER has ribosomes Centrosome: -Region where the cells microtubles are initiated (microtubule organizing center) Cytoskeleton: -Reinforces cell’s shape -Functions in cell movement -Made of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules Peroxisome -Detoxify substances into H20 -Produces H2O2 then degrades it into H2O Lysosomes: -Contain enzymes to digest food and wastes -“suicide sack” of cells, kill germs
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SI FINAL review - Eukaryotes: -Plants, animals, fungi,...

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