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ZOO test one outline - Introduction Human anatomy study of...

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Introduction Human anatomy: study of the structure of the human body o Aka morphology Gross anatomy: dissection; tissues bigger than .1 mm Microscopic anatomy: deals with smaller structures (cells, tissues, etc) or microscopic details of various organs (intestine, liver, etc); investigated at light or electron microscopy levels o Aka histology Branches of anatomy: o Systemic: skeletal, muscular, etc o Regional: 1. Back and lower limb 2. Upper limb and thorax 3. Abdomen and pelvis 4. Head and neck Surface: shapes and markings on the body surface Developmental: deals with structural changes in the body throughout life Embryology: studying development of the body before birth Pathologic: deals with structural changes in the tissues caused by a disease Functional: deals with function of the body structures o Aka physiology Radiographic and imaging techniques: anatomy of living human o X-rays o Myelography o Barium swallow o Computed tomography (CT) o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) o Positron emission tomography (PET) o Sonography Major body cavities (*diagram in slides*) o Plane of superior thoracic aperture Aka thoracic inlet o Thoracic cage o Thoracic cavity o Thoracic diaphragm o Abdomino-pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Plane of superior pelvic aperture Aka pelvic inlet Pelvic cavity Pubic symphysis Pelvic diaphragm Anatomical position: standing still, palms facing forward Principal axes o Longitudinal vertical o transverse horizontal o sagittal
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principal planes o median (median sagittal) o sagittal (paramedian) o frontal (coronal) o transverse Directions o Cranial: toward the head o Superior: upward with the body erect o Caudal: toward the buttocks o Rostral: toward the mouth o Inferior: downward with the body erect o Medial: toward the middle o Lateral: away from the middle o Medius: in the midline o Median: within the median plane o Central: toward the center of the body o Peripheral: toward surface of the body o Anterior: toward the front o Ventral: toward the abdomen o Posterior: toward the back o Dorsal: toward the back o Proximal: toward the limb attachment o Distal: away from the limb attachment Movement o Flexion: bending o Extension: stretching o Abduction: away from the body o Adduction: toward the body o Rotation: pivoting/rotary motion o Circumduction: circular movement Bones o Classifications: long: longer than wide diaphysis: shaft epiphysis: two ends blood vessels: well vascularized medullary cavity: hollow, filled with marrow membranes: periosteum, sharpey’s fibers, endosteum short: roughly cube shaped flat: thin, flattened, usually curved irregular: various shapes o Functions: support: provides hard framework to protect organs movement: skeletal muscles use bones as levers mineral storage: reservoir for important minerals blood-cell formation: bone contains red marrow
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o Gross anatomy of bone: Compact: dense outer layer of bone
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  • Spring '10
  • SAMSAM
  • Lateral plantar nerve, Medial plantar nerve, Nerves of the lower limb and lower torso, sacral plexus, Tibial nerve

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