RWlec14 - LS3 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LECTURE 14 Viruses the New...

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LS3 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LECTURE 14 May 12, 2011 Viruses & the New Central Dogma Dr. Randolph Wall Reading: Watson et al. Sixth Edition, 783-794
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Central Dogma* of Molecular Biology DNA RNA Protein ( genome ) *Coined by F. Crick in 1957 Transcription Translation Replication
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Variations on the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Viruses Agents causing diseases Studies of viruses have provided important discoveries in biological processes RNA processing, splicing, polyA Tumor viruses, oncogenes, and cancer Provide useful tools for molecular biology
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Viruses have few genes (range 4 - 200 genes) & must rely on infected host cells for energy, enzymes & biosynthetic processes Viral genomes can be either DNA or RNA, this can be single or double-stranded, linear or circular -> these differences require many different mechanisms for viral genome replication & expression Virus particles (virions) organized in two basic ways: helical rod- shaped vs. icosahedral (20-sided) spherical-shaped. Some have lipid envelope surrounding viral nucleocapsid Viruses usually only infect specific host cells (limited host range for species or cell types) via interactive surface receptors First step in infection is attachment to host cell with either virus penetration & release of viral nucleic acid or injection of viral nucleic acid into cell Second step is viral replication inside infected cell Third step is release of progeny virus from cell Life Cycle of Viruses in Infected Cells
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Viruses That Cause Human Disease Virus Herpes Simplex (HSV) Epstein-Barr (EBV) Varicella-zoster Smallpox Hepatitis B * Human Papillomavirus Influenza virus Poliovirus Rhinoviruses Hepatitis A Hepatitis C Yellow fever Rabies Mumps Measles * Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Genome Type double-stranded DNA double-stranded DNA double-stranded DNA double-stranded DNA double-stranded DNA double-stranded DNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA Disease recurrent cold sores mononucleosis, Burkitts lymph.
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