chapter7 - 7 The long chain From Ships to plastics The jet...

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1 7. 7. - The long chain The long chain z From Ships to plastics z The jet is one of the most efficient innovations to the forms of transportation since the 17 th century. z The need for transporting cargo (and even for battle) resulted in the creation of efficient ships. z The Galleon (Spanish): triangular and square sails went back and forth across the Atlantic. z The Fluyt: long, flat-bottom, large cargo space, very stable in rough weather. z The power went from Amsterdam to England around 1650, profitable colonies turned England in a nation of sailors initially for tobacco and sugar. Speaking of transportation, the jet is one of the most efficient innovations to the forms of transportation since the 17th century together with the internal combustion engine which was discussed in the last chapter. Air enters a jet engine through an inlet and then mixed with fuel. The high-pressure gas that comes out through a nozzle is used to generate thrust.
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2 Gas Illumination Gas Illumination z A mollusc called Teredo navalis became a problem for the wooden ships. z The protection: thick layer of a mixture of tar and pitch. z 1776 American colonies revolted. Supply of pitch and tar stopped. Search for alternatives led to a tarry liquid produced during the burning of coal in furnaces. z Investigations on this tar led to the discovery of a gas from coal that would ignite by Murdok (1799). z By 1805 fifty lamps had been made. They replaced candles and whale-oil lamps (unsafe and inefficient). Costs of illumination went down by a factor of four. By 1850 there were 2000 miles of piping carrying the gas. z Social effects: streets safer; longer factory hours; evening classes. London clubs grew.
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This note was uploaded on 06/08/2011 for the course SMT 310 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.

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chapter7 - 7 The long chain From Ships to plastics The jet...

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