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asam8 notes - 2/16/11 Subsistence Strategies An economic...

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2/16/11 Subsistence Strategies An economic production typology • Foraging • Horticulture • Agriculture • Pastoralism Rather than thinking of them as ideal types, Foraging: a substinence strategy that depends on gathering and hunting what can be found in nature • Subsist on a wide variety of food • Have an intimate and expansive knowledge of their environments • 12000 years ago all humans were foragers • recent and contemporary foragers are not great examples of ancient foragers o marginal envronments o small bands Cultivation • There are 2 main cultivation strategies: horticulture and agriculture • Neolithic (new tools) or agricultural revolution • Began 12000 years ago in the fertile crescent Progressivist theory • Adopting agriculture was a huge step towards progress Revisionist theory: adopting agriculture was done only out of necessity or force • When foragers switched to agriculture they traded o High quality protein rich diets for low quality carbs o A base of substinence that was diverse and stable for one that is narrow and vulnerable o Lifestyle with lots of leisure for lifestyle with lots of work • Why would they do that? o Internal population pressure o External encroachment • In many ways, we are better off than foreigners • In addition to enabling larger populations, agriculture enables greater social stratification Horticulture • A cultivation strategy that doesn’t use land intensely • Depends on simple non-mechanized technology and human labor • Swidden/slash and burn techniques Agriculture • A cultivation strategy that uses land continuously and intensely Pastoralism • A cultivation strategy that relies on herding domesticated animals that eat natural vegitation 2/23/11 Economic exchange Principles • The economy is a cultural system
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asam8 notes - 2/16/11 Subsistence Strategies An economic...

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