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glossary words to know for midterm

glossary words to know for midterm - Lec 1 Cholera An...

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Lec. 1 Cholera An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . Transmission to humans occurs through the process of ingesting contaminated water or food. The major reservoir for cholera was long assumed to be humans themselves, but considerable evidence exists that aquatic environments can serve as reservoirs of the bacteria. Vibrio cholera The bacterial causative agent of cholera in humans. Endemic The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area. Epidemic The occurrence in an area of a disease or illness in excess of what may be expected on the basis of past experience for a given population (in the case of a new disease, such as AIDS, any occurrence may be considered "epidemic"). Pandemic A worldwide epidemic affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the global population. Lec. 2 Miasma Theory The theory that diseases were caused by miasma or bad air arising from organic decay, filth, or other conditions of the local environment. Index case The index case is the first disease case in an epidemic. Sometimes called ‘patient zero’. Germ Theory The theory that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. Highly controversial when first proposed. cf. miasma theory Incidence The number of new cases of a disease occurring in a given population over a certain period of time. The incidence rate is commonly measured in new cases per 1,000 (or 100,000) of population at risk, per year. cf prevalence. Prevalence The number of instances of a given disease or other condition in a given population at a designated time. Cf incidence. Virulence From the Latin word virulentus , which means "full of poison." The relative ability of a microbe to cause harm.
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Epidemic curve A histogram that describes an outbreak of disease by plotting the number of cases of a disease by date of onset. Third Cholera Pandemic (1852-1860) Included outbreaks in London. The Broad Street outbreak investigated by John Snow was particularly deadly. Epidemiology The branch of medicine that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations. Point source epidemic A point source epidemic occurs when a group of people is exposed to a single common source of infection at a single place and time. There is no significant transmission between individuals. cf. continuous and intermittent epidemics.
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