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Unformatted text preview: õ e ȼª w . ‘ ’ {†f ’ z†‘ 1 u t ˆê( ˜Ò¼ªp Ðy†‘ ¼ªp fÏ F 1 y { ’ z†‘ 1 y 1’ f w . {†‘ 1 fÏ Ðy†‘ ¼ªp F õ e ȼªp Ðy†‘ ¼ªp fÏ F 1’ f w . {†‘ 1õ e ȼªp 1 y õ e ȼªp 1 11 z†‘ { ’ 1 .1õ e ȼªp õ e ȼªp 1 cÏ Ðy†‘k ¼ªp (Contents or Table of Contents)1 1 Contents Acknowledgements vii To the Teacher Educator ix 1. Introduction 1 2. The Grammar Translation Method 11 3. The Direct Method 23 4. The Audio-Lingual Method 35 5. The Silent Way 53 6. Desuggestopedia 73 7. Community Language Learning 89 8. Total Physical Response 107 9. Communicative Language Teaching 121 10. Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory 1 / 18 Approaches 137 11. Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple Intelligences 159 12. Conclusion Appendix 177 191 Source: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. . 1 ª ¼ õ gt w ’f u{ ’ ‘† ’ A (main/central idea) pª ¼ 1 g t õ Ð (Introduction)1 (1 ) Ð 1 1 Introduction GOALS OF THIS BOOK One of the goals of this book is for you to learn about many different language teaching methods…. The actions are the techniques and the thoughts are the principles in the title of this book: Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. A second goal is to help you uncover the thoughts that guide your own actions as a teacher…. A third goal is to introduce you to a variety of techniques, some of which will be new…. LAYOUT OF CHAPTERS We will learn about the methods by entering a classroom where each method is being practiced…. We will observe the techniques the teacher is using and his or her behavior…. After we have identified the principles, we will answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the goals of teachers who use this method. 2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students? 3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? The answers to these questions will add to our understanding of each method and 2 / 18 allow us to see some salient differences among the methods presented here…. Following these questions, we will review the techniques we observed in the lesson…. At the end of each chapter are two types of exercises… Teaching can be a solitary act, but collaborating with other teachers can help enrich our experience and nurture our growth. Source: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. p t(p ˆ 21u˜ ª1 ê ª ¼ Ò ¼ p t(p ˆ 31u˜ ª1 ê ª ¼ Ò ¼ 1 41 ‘† z ’ ´ ’ (topic sentence) ´’ (main/central pª ¼ õ g ˜ idea) /1 Y ¼w Ï (supporting/development sentences) XÏ /1 ‘pª y Ð ¼ Y † (exemplification)˜ (chronological order)˜ (spatial order)1 pª ¼ õ g pª ¼ õ g (cause and effect) ˜ (comparison or contrast) 1 1 pª ¼ õ g (classification) 1 (definition) ˜ (process analysis) 1 p¼ õ g ª (topical organization)1 1 (inference)˜ (problem-solution)1 pª ¼ õ g 1 (combined method) 1ê ª ˆ 1 u˜ p t¼ p ¼ Ò ª( 1 1 first, second/then, third, finally 1 1 1 ª ¼õg˜ p¼ õ g ˜ ª east, west, south, north p¼ õ g ˜ ª 1 w ¼ ØÏ ‘†p¼ w yª Ð Ï à 1 ‘† p Ð ª ¼ Ï 4 y ¤ w ¼ ØÏ (key words) p¼ õ g ˜ ª ‘† z ´’ / ) (zD context) † w ¼ ØÏ † {’ (word root/stem (suffix ˜ ª g õ ¼ / ) / / (prefix ) / / ’ Ò !é á* u nity( ) : õª g* ˜¼ Topic sentence (including main/central idea; it’s usually the first sentence in 3 / 18 / a body paragraph)….Supporting sentences (exemplification, chronological order, spatial order, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, classification, definition, process analysis, topical organization, inference, problem-solution, or combined method)…. Concluding sentence (summary of the whole paragraph)…. ˆ 11 : ˆ The choice of target language is determined by a variety of factors. In the case of immigrants to Canada, Britain, or the United States, learning English is probably the prime objective. But in the case of foreign language instruction in schools and universities, the choice of language and the objectives to be pursued are less clearly defined. Although there are usually good educational and sociopolitical reasons for including French or German in the school curriculum, students may find that in later life they need Russian, Spanish, or Arabic. In other cases, once they have grown up, students make no further use of any of the languages they studied in school. Therefore, especially in school and university settings, foreign language teaching should include among its goals more generalized educational objectives than those we have considered so far. These can be summarized as three ‘transfer’objectives: acquiring language learning techniques; obtaining insight into language and culture, and developing positive generalized attitudes to language, culture, and language study. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.93) 1 ¼ õjˆ : The choice of target language is determined by a variety of factors. (1 )1 choice of target language(j* ¼ õˆ ª ) ˆÒ* ¼ª ê¼ ª˜ * (in the case of, in the case of, in other cases) 1 ¼ õª ˆ j ˆ p¼ õ j ˆ ª 1 1 These can be summarized as three ‘transfer’ objectives: acquiring language learning techniques; obtaining insight into language and culture, and developing positive generalized attitudes to language, culture, and language study. 1 ‘† z pª ¼ õ j ˆ my Ð ‘¼ ’ p ²ª † pª ¼ õ j ˆ (1)1 †’ { 1 (2) 1 (3)ˆ ¼õ j §ˆ §ˆ 1 (2) m f ² m f ² 4 / 18 (3)ˆ ªõ ¼ j 1 : (1)1 1 ¼ õ e ˆªp 11 1u ¼ ˜Òªp ¼t ˆê( /1 1 1 (Exemplification) (1 11 ) Ϫ€ P pª ¼ õ eˆ ¨P This book is addressed to second or foreign language teachers in general. It is not specific to any one language and therefore concerns, for example, the teacher of English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) as much as the teacher of French, Spanish, Russian, or Japanese. The book is also general in another sense. It is not only meant for teachers who work in a particular type of instruction, such as a comprehensive school, high school, or grammar school; it has in mind equally the teacher of young children as well as of adult learners; it ranges from kindergarten to university; it is for teachers of students who are taught informally through private tuition or formally in conventional classes of ten, twenty, or thirty pupils; it is also meant for teacher who reach mass audiences through radio or television. It should be of interest to teacher trainers, supervisors, administrators, and others whose business is second or foreign language teaching or some aspect of it. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.1) 1 This book is addressed to second or foreign language teachers in general. (1 )1 second or foreign language teachers (for example, such as) 11 1 It should be of interest to teacher trainers, supervisors, administrators, and others whose business is second or foreign language teaching or some aspect of it. 1 ¼ õeˆ ª¼õeˆ 1 1 11 pª ¼ õ e ˆ pª† y ¼ Ð 1 í ° ‘Ï (1)ESL/EFL ˆ¼ õ eª / pª† y ¼ Ð Ï í ° ‘ / /ˆ¼ õ eª (2) ’ B†@D @ { r @ 7 ë ( Ï /ˆeª õ * ¼ /1 : for example, for instance, in this case, in another case, on this occasion, in this situation, take the case of, proof of this, evidence of this, thus, in this manner, in other words., such as, that is, case, specifically, generally, as proof, as follows, as below, to name a few, to be specific 5 / 18 21 Xmª pª pª î ¼u t¼( tÒ˜ pª ¼ õ m X (Chronological Organization) (1 11 pª ¼ õ )X m 1 An important development in the wake of the scientific movement was the increasing use of empirical research methods in the attempt to solve problems of language pedagogy. The 1960s witnessed vigorous attempts to come to grips with the method controversy through empirical research. Several research projects were initiated with this purpose in mind. They were only partially successful in that the evidence they produced for one or the other methodological option was not very conclusive. These studies gave rise to further controversies, and the researchers were drawn into the debate. In the 1970s, researchers abandoned the central emphasis on teaching method and, as already mentioned, initiated a new and productive series of studies on language learning. Those exploring this avenue argued forcefully that no improvement in language teaching could be expected unless the characteristics of second language learners and the learning process were better understood. Many studies in the 1970s and the 1980s were carried out with this objective in mind. Gradually also research on language teaching was tried again, but this time more cautiously and with greater sophistication, and with more safeguards to ensure validity. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.9) 1 ¼ õ Xm ª¼õmX 1 1 @ 1 An important development in the wake of the scientific movement was the increasing use of empirical research methods in the attempt to solve problems of language pedagogy. (1 ) 1 empirical research methods, solve problems of language pedagogy (1960s, 1970s, 1980s) ª ¼ 1m X õ 1 Gradually also research on language teaching was tried again, but this time more cautiously and with greater sophistication, and with more safeguards to ensure validity. pb¼(tîª ¼ ˜B 1 tÒ ª 1 bª ¼ õ Xm b‘†ª 1Ïy Y ¼ ¯Ð 1¼ Ï 0 ¯ bª ¼ õ Xm ª ¼ õ Xm 1 : (1)1960 pA á Cé Ò (á 1970 pA 2) Cé Ò pªÒ * (t¼ ¼ ˜ª î ‘† D z † { @ ‘† { .(@ O (3) 1970 1980 Xª m ¼ õ : 6 / 18 /1 1 /o : , first, second, etc., in the meantime, at the same time, after an interval, presently, somewhat later, soon, then, next, now, later, finally, eventually, thereupon, thereafter, after, afterwards, at last, meanwhile. 31 õ n X ª¼ ‘p¼ Ïy ©Ð À †ª (Spatial Organization) (1 11 11 11 )1 1 The study of target culture (C2) is directed to specified contact groups since languages are used by geographically diverse communities. Thus, for immigrants to North America the primary C2 would be the United States or Canada. In a foreign language teaching situation, for example the teaching of English in France or Germany, the primary target community is more likely to be Britain or the United States. In India, on the other hand, where English is used internally as a language of communication, the appropriate C2 would be India itself. Both language and culture are cognitively guided areas of study. Language and culture form the object of study and enquiry. Practice activities involved in both syllabuses are directed to deliberately chosen features of the language and the society or culture. Both syllabuses represent a particular viewpoint about language learning, i.e. that the analytic study of L2 (second language) and C2 has a significant role to play. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (pp.27-28) 1 ¼ õ Xn ª¼õnX 1 1 D†{ X¼ õª n* The study of target culture (C2) is directed to specified contact groups since languages are used by geographically diverse communities. (1 )1 geographically diverse communities (North America, the United States, Canada, France, ª ¼ on X õ Germany, Britain, India) 1 Both syllabuses represent a particular viewpoint about language learning, i.e. that the analytic study of L2 (second language) and C2 has a significant role to play. 1 ‘† z culture)éA CÒá p ‘† y Ð* Ð áª Ï ¼ X¼ õª n* ’ (target ‘† y (Ð * Ð áª Ï ¼ pª (Ò * ¼ t:î ˜ ª t ¼ /1 : 7 / 18 ) ,1 , above, across from, adjacent to, also, up, under, before me, below, beyond, further, down, around, here, in the distance, nearby, next to, close to, near to, on the left, on the right, opposite to, on top of, beneath, over, in front. 41 (Analogy) 1 ‘† p¸Ð û Æ yª ‘† p¸Ð û Æ yª p1¼pîu ª (ª ¼t˜Ò ( 1 pª pî¼u˜Ò (ª¼ t x ) 1p•ª ½ ¨ D [x ‘† p´Ð O ó ` yª 1D¨½ ª• 1 [x p•ª ½ ¨ D 1 11 1 The atmosphere of Earth acts like any window in serving two very important functions. It lets light in and it permits us to look out. It also serves a shield to keep out dangerous or uncomfortable things. A normal glazed window lets us keep our houses warm by keeping out cold air, and it prevents rain, dirt, and unwelcome insects and animals from coming in. As we have already seen, Earth’s atmospheric window also helps to keep our planet at a comfortable temperature by holding back radiated heat and protecting us from dangerous levels of ultraviolet light. Lately, we have discovered that space is full of a great many very dangerous things against which our atmosphere guards us. It is not a perfect shield, and sometimes one of these dangerous objects does get through. There is even some evidence that a few of these messengers from space contain life, though this has by no means been proved yet. Source: Eschholz, P & Rosa, A (Eds.). (1985). Subject and Strategy: A Rhetoric Reader. New York: St. Martin’s Press Inc. (pp.243-244) 1 1 D• ¨ ½ ª ½P¨ • 1 1 The atmosphere of Earth acts like any window in serving two very important functions. (1 )1 atmosphere of Earth, window (Earth’s atmospheric window) oo 11 p:•½ ¨ ªD pª tp(¼¼ª1 u tÒî ˜ pD¨ ª •½ ‘p yØ †ª ¸ Ð Ê û p¨ ª• ½ like, as, 1 ) 1 pD¨ ª •½ (2)¨ p• ª½ (1)yØ ‘p ¸ Ð Ê †ª û /1 : (simile,1 like, as 1 ), 1 /1 8 / 18 (metaphor,1 like, as 51 (Cause and Effect) (cause and effect) U X ¼Ð [ ð ( )1 pª ¼ õ o ªwhy t ¼õo Of the three main trends of development in the continuing efforts to improve language teaching, technology has been the least problematical and probably also the least influential. Language teaching has not been changed radically as a result of technology. None the less, the resources that technology has put at the disposal of language teaching have been of immense value. Nowadays, we take for granted the use of tape or cassette recorders, and overhead and filmstrip projectors, as well as the use of audio, television, and video in the service of language teaching. Certainly the development of microcomputers offers opportunities for new programs and for useful individualized approaches. However, there are as yet no indications of any very significant changes merely because a new technology has come into use. Those who work in the area of computer-assisted language learning tend to be cautiously optimistic without making the excessive claims that accompanied the introduction of language laboratories in the 1960s. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.10) 1 1 ¼õt o ª¼õt o 1 Of the three main trends of development in the continuing efforts to improve language teaching, technology has been the least problematical and probably also the least influential. (1 )1 technology, least problematical, the least influential (as a result of, because) 11 1 Those who work in the area of computer-assisted language learning tend to be cautiously optimistic without making the excessive claims that accompanied the introduction of language laboratories in the 1960s. 1 :t 1 ‘ † py Ð ª ¼ Ð S Ø pA C éá Ò p ª 1¼ õ t o ppttªî ¼ u ª ¼ ( Ò˜ ‘† ’ . { pª ¼ õt o Reasons ( Result ( o /1 w f ’ : ): since, because, for, as, in as much as, for the reason that ): as a result of, accordingly, thus, consequently, hence, therefore, wherefore, thereupon, so, it follows that, one may infer, one may conclude, 61¼ õ o t pª (Comparison or Contrast) 9 / 18 (è’ªp :è’ªp D D (similarities)†ª‘ 1Ð ¼ p° 1 )1 py Ð 1 1 1 1 (1 /1 )1 (differences)1 ° Combinations of subject matter and language teaching are of particular value to university students who are studying abroad and who find that they have difficulty in coping with courses designed for native speakers. Equally, immigrant children who have difficulty in coping with the regular school program can be helped by special sheltered courses which combine subject matter and language teaching. This approach is also useful for language learners with special research or professional interests. When a language is being studied within a broader educational program, it is appropriate to decide which topics within the other subjects can be taken up in the second language class. The aim should be to create a link which will enhance both the study of the language and the student’s general education. In none of these cases, however, is it a question of arbitrarily picking topics from other school subjects. The choice of such topics should be clearly motivated and should make sense within the program, and the justification should be equally clear to the student. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.193) 1 Combinations of subject matter and language teaching are of particular value to university students who are studying abroad and who find that they have difficulty in coping with courses designed for native speakers. (1 )1 combinations of subject matter and language teaching Dè ½’ (equally, also) ª ½D è ’ 11 1 1 The choice of such topics should be clearly motivated and should make sense within the program, and the justification should be equally clear to the student. (1‘† ª y ¸ Ð û )h 1 ‘† ª y ¸ Ð :O h pû pO 1 ‘† ’ . { w’ f ‘† ’ . { w’ f ‘† ’ . { w’ f 1 1 pª Dè ½’ /1 : similarly, like, another, equally, equally important, on the same grounds, in a similar vein, by the same token, likewise, besides, in fact, both, also, furthermore, too, then, in addition to, in the same way, just as…so, moreover, at the same time, accordingly, however, likewise, in like manner, whereas, but, on the other hand, except, by comparison, when compared to, in comparison with, up against, balanced against, vis-à-vis. 10 / 18 The different disciplines involved in functional analysis have led to varying emphases. Some writers have given precedence to semantics and have focused on notions, functions, and Austin’s and Searle’s concept of the speech act. Others have worked out the implications of discourse and conversational analysis, paying attention to aspects of cohesion and coherence in language use, and revising their views of the four skills. Others again have adopted the speech act model derived from Jakobson and Hymes. Functional analysis, therefore, appears in language pedagogy in a variety of guises. It has contributed to the formulation of language teaching goals through the concept of communicative competence; it has had a profound influence on syllabus design; it is reflected in newer approaches to teaching methodology and teaching materials; and it has influenced methods of evaluation. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.162) The different disciplines involved in functional analysis have led to varying emphases. (1 )1 varying emphasis (some, others, others again) 11 1 It has contributed to the formulation of language teaching goals through the concept of communicative competence; it has had a profound influence on syllabus design; it is reflected in newer approaches to teaching methodology and teaching materials; and it has influenced methods of evaluation. 1 1 Pø” ½ ªD ø ½” 1 1 :ptÒ e á éA ‘† . { @ ’à bª ø ”P ½ Ò I• w ’ f by ª ¼ ‘ ˆ Ð ÓІ by ª ¼ ‘ Ð Ð ÑІ bª ø ”P ½ /1 : by contrast, but, on the contrary, on the other hand, despite, not only…but also, years ago…today, the earlier…the later, the first…whereas the second, on the one hand…on the other hand, different from, in spite of, another, instead, here…there, this…that, then…now, some…others, once…now, whereas, nevertheless, still, however, rather, yet, after all, for all that, on the contrary, notwithstanding, in contrast. 71 1 (Classification) 11 / 18 1 : (? Ï )1 The different emphases of the 1970s described above suggest two main directions in the interpretation of communicative language teaching. The first can be called analytic or ‘formal’ and is based largely on linguistic and sociolinguistic considerations. It reflects the European work on needs analysis, speech act theory, and discourse analysis, and more generally the growth of sociolinguistics and related disciplines. The other is non-analytic, experiential, or participant in character and reflects the mainly North American experience of immersion, emphasis on content, awareness of human relations, and language acquisition research. It is important to recognize that there is no necessary conflict between a more analytic and a more experiential or non-analytic approach. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.13) Ï ? 1 D ½t “ ªDt ½“ 1 1 The different emphases of the 1970s described above suggest two main directions in the interpretation of communicative language teaching. (1 )1 two directions (The first, analytic; The other, non-analytic) 11 1 It is important to recognize that there is no necessary conflict between a more analytic and a more experiential or non-analytic approach. :1 1970 È 1¼Ï z• 11 :1 (1 (1 )1 pª Dt ½“ ª Dt ½)“ 11 1 ª Dt ½“ 1 pª Dt ½“ /1 : types, kinds, groups, classes, sorts, sources, categories, varieties, clusters, directions, classify, divide…into…, break…into… Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.13) 81 1 t (Definition) )1 1 pC éA áÒ ª D“ t ½( 11 È 1 A specialized terminology is employed in language teaching, and certain distinctions are made, which derive from educational theory and more specifically from curriculum theory. The term ‘curriculum’ itself can be used in two ways. In one sense, it refers to the program of studies of an educational institution. When we talk, for example, of the school curriculum or the university curriculum, we think of the overall functions of schools or universities and how these functions are manifested in the distribution of subjects and activities. In this sense, foreign languages have their place in the curriculum of most educational institutions. In a 12 / 18 more restricted sense we use the term curriculum to describe the substance of what is taught in a given subject, say mathematics, history, or French. We refer, accordingly, to the mathematics curriculum, the history curriculum, or the French curriculum. The use of the term curriculum in the second sense usually involves at least three aspects: (a) defining objectives, (b) determining content, and (c) indicating some sort of sequence or progression. Together, these aspects constitute the essential minimum of what is meant by curriculum. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.19) 1 A specialized terminology is employed in language teaching, and certain distinctions are made, which derive from educational theory and more specifically from curriculum theory. (1 )1 curriculum (term, refers to, in one sense, in a more restricted sense, mean) 11 1 DØ ½— DØ ª ½— 1 1 1 Together, these aspects constitute the essential minimum of what is meant by curriculum. :—ª ½ bØP 1 (1) 1 1bØP —ª ½ ç@ @ 1bØP —ª ½ (2) 1 1 ç@ @ ¼Ï 11 ’à : ( :b — ª ؽ ) b— ª ؽ /1 : term, define, refer to, mean, sense, denote, be described as, be defined as, be seen as, be considered as, be thought of as, be known as, be called/named/termed as, be taken to be as 91ª D Ø ½— (Process Analysis) (1 ‘ † ’. { w’ f first, next, then, later, finally)1DØ how 1 ª —½ 1 As a rationale for procedures commonly employed in the teaching of pronunciation at any level, Strevens (1977) suggests a three-stage gradation. To begin with, teachers should encourage students to mimic and imitate without wasting much time on explanations, because in many situations straightforward imitation in all that is needed. Where there are difficulties which simple mimicking or imitation do not overcome, instruction should move to ‘speech training’, that is specific exercises which attempt to deal with a particular pronunciation problem. The pedagogical literature offers an abundance of techniques for this purpose. But such speech training can be utilized without going into technical detail, except that the exercises may implicitly draw attention to a sound segment, a speech movement, or a point of stress, rhythm, or intonation. If this procedure does not work, instruction would, at the third or final stage, move to ‘practical phonetics’, that is 13 / 18 more explicit phonetic or phonological explanations. In this way, the technical analysis of the speech production process is minimized. It does not dominate pronunciation training. It is a last resort, and students are not overwhelmed with phonological theory and technicalities where, in the main, simple imitation and perhaps some carefully designed exercises are sufficient. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (pp.109-110) 1 P˜™ ½ ª D˜ ½™ 1 1 As a rationale for procedures commonly employed in the teaching of pronunciation at any level, Strevens (1977) suggests a three-stage gradation. (1 )1 procedures, pronunciation, three-stage gradation (to begin with, speech training, third or final stage, 1D ˜ ª ½™ practical phonetics) 1 It is a last resort, and students are not overwhelmed with phonological theory and technicalities where, in the main, simple imitation and perhaps some carefully designed exercises are sufficient. îÀ 1u â• 1 Strevens 1 1977 1 1 : îÀ 1 pª ¼ Ï y ; `І 1‘ pª D ˜ ½™ /1 : to begin with, first of all, stage, procedure, steps, process, first, second, etc., but, finally, also, another, yet, once, such, then, thus, as a result, at last, consequently, for example, for instance, in addition, in this case, otherwise, in closing, now, for this purpose, furthermore, moreover, likewise, next, on the contrary, in summary, on the other hand, in conclusion, therefore. Sequence (1 ): first, second, third, A, B, C, 1, 2, 3, next, then, following, this, at this time, now, at this point, after, afterward, after this, subsequently, soon, finally, consequently, before this, previously, preceding this, simultaneously, concurrently, at this time, therefore, hence 101 1 (Topical Organization) (subject matter)˜ ‘† p y u â À ª ¼Ð pD ª ½™ 11 (1 financial reports, democratic ppt ¼ tu˜ ª ¼ (ª î Ò institutions, policy issues)1 Broadly speaking, communicative analysis is a way of coming closer to the living reality of language. Semantics, dealing with the description of word and 14 / 18 sentence meaning, is perhaps closest to the formal core of linguistics. Discourse analysis is concerned with the underlying principles of text structure, and also with the means whereby we produce a coherent piece of writing or manage a conversational interaction. Pragmatics can be broadly defined as the study of intended speaker meaning within a particular context. Ethnographers set out to examine general patterns of communication in society, while sociolinguistics typically deal with questions of language attitude, the social implications of varieties of language, and language variability as a result of changes in context or social role. In short, communicative analysis draws attention to certain features of language use which were not within the purview of structuralism. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (pp.167 & 176) 1 P ½ ø— ª Dø ½— 1 1 pª Dø ½— 1 Broadly speaking, communicative analysis is a way of coming closer to the living reality of language. (1 )1 living reality of language (semantics, discourse analysis, pragmatics, ethnographers, 11 sociolinguistics) 1 In short, communicative analysis draws attention to certain features of language use which were not within the purview of structuralism. ª :½— ø D 1 ( 11 1t pA CÒáé ( ’ pA CÒáé ª Dø ½— p)½ø ªD — )1 1 uî4 /1 ‘ 1ypª Ð u † ¼y î 1 : (e.g., linguistics, pragmatics, ’ 1 uí X semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, phonetics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics…etc.) 111 1 (Inference) t péA CÒá pª Dø 1½ — t péA CÒá â’ pª Dø ½— (read between the lines) Nowadays, it is so much taken for granted that the interest of the learner is directed only to proficiency that the possible teaching of grammar as an objective is entirely overlooked. Admittedly, it is more common to find that students regard grammar purely from the instrumental point of view and would like to have as little as possible of it. But it should not be overlooked that an interesting treatment of grammar can awaken an intellectual curiosity, and change negative attitudes. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in 15 / 18 Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.134) 1 Pø› ½ ª Dø ½› 1 1 1 Nowadays, it is so much taken for granted that the interest of the learner is directed only to proficiency that the possible teaching of grammar as an objective is entirely overlooked. (1 )1 grammar, overlooked (instrumental point of view, as little as possible of it) 11 1 But it should not be overlooked that an interesting treatment of grammar can awaken an intellectual curiosity, and change negative attitudes. (1 )1 1 1 bbªtî¼ 1¼ Ò ˜B ª 11 D †bªy ÐB pâ ¼ ª P ø› 1 ½ 1 Bh â¼ () )) 1 bª 1½P ø› bª 1½P ø› ª 1½P ø› () D †bªy ÐB ¸ï ª P ø› ½ ¼) ª )P ø› ½ ) bbªtî¼ ¼ Ò ˜B ª 121 › ª øP (Problem – Solution) ½ (1 ‘† py ª Ð u ï ¸ ¼ 1 uï ° problem, solution)1 One of the most difficult problems in making classroom learning communicative is the absence of native speakers. In many parts of the worlds students have to learn English with little likelihood of seeing or hearing, let alone making personal contact with, a native speaker. In other countries the teacher is likely to be a native speaker. This has the obvious advantage of providing at least one contact person. But the presence of a single native speaker may have the disadvantage of distorting the varied reality of the native speech community. Any form of field experience, such as a short trip across the Channel for French or English children, gives at least an impression of the reality and diversity of target language speakers, and these shortterm visits are invaluable. The need to provide a range of L2 (second language) contacts underlines the importance of inviting native speakers into the language class as guests. Other useful devices from this point of view are correspondence schemes, and exchanges of videotapes or cassettes. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (pp.184-185) 1 ½D ø › ª Dø ½› 1 1 One of the most difficult problems in making classroom learning communicative is the absence of native speakers. (1 )1 one problem (field experience, other useful devices) ª 1½ › ø D 1 Other useful devices from this point of view are correspondence schemes, 16 / 18 and exchanges of videotapes or cassettes. 1 ‘ † pª 1 Ò tt y м 1 11 ‘p† ª uÐå ¸ y¼ 1 1 DX ª ›½ uä À ä à (field trip)1 11 à ä (target language) ¸ ‘p† ª uÐå y¼ 11 1 131 1 ‘† z {’ 1 Cultural competence implies implicit mastery of the norms of society, the unspoken rules of conduct, values, and orientations which make up the cultural fabric of a society…It is not possible to achieve any of the proficiency goals without including certain aspects of socio-cultural information. To a certain extent, however, cultural competence is distinct from communicative competence in that it points to mainly social and cultural behavior and facts, and less to their linguistic manifestations: for example, what table manners should be observed; whether or not it is expected to give a present to the host; whether in greeting it is right, wrong, or unnecessary to bow or shake hands, and so on. While the native speaker has acquired most of these and other cultural features unconsciously, the non-native language learner will have to make a deliberate effort to conceptualize at least some of them, while others may be acquired gradually through life in the target language community. Source: Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. (p.83) 1 Cultural competence implies implicit mastery of the norms of society, the unspoken rules of conduct, values, and orientations which make up the cultural fabric of a society (1 )1 cultural competence (imply)1 1 (however)1 1 (for example) 11 1 While the native speaker has acquired most of these and other cultural features unconsciously, the non-native language learner will have to make a deliberate effort to conceptualize at least some of them, while others may be acquired gradually through life in the target language community. 1 DX ½› DX ª ½› 1 1 ‘ pªy 1¼Ðuå ¸ † pD X ª1 ›½ ‘† ’. { ‘† ’. { w ’f w ’f ‘ pªy uè¼Ð ˆ † 1 17 / 18 1 1 pD X ª ›½ (extensive reading)1 (intensive reading)1 1 ‘† { ’ . pé A CÒ á 1 ’ f w t 1 (specific reading)1 Ð 1 1 11 1 Y u ï 1 ◎ Eschholz, P & Rosa, A (Eds.). (1985). Subject and Strategy: A Rhetoric Reader. New York: St. Martin’s Press Inc. ◎ Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. ◎ Stern, H. H. (1990). Allen, P. & Harley, B. (Eds.). Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Toronto: Oxford University Press. : pª D à ½œ • ` .Ð (2007). Monthly). No.478, pp. 82-89. ( ). H ½ œ (The Educator • ` .Ð (2007). Monthly). No.477, pp. 76-81. ( ). H ½ œ (The Educator • ` .Ð (2007). Monthly). No.476, pp. 71-77. ( ). H ½ œ (The Educator 18 / 18 ...
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