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Unformatted text preview: Assessing Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Assessing Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Edited by Johnny L. Matson Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA Frank Andrasik University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL Michael L. Matson Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA Editors Johnny L. Matson Department of Psychology Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 225-752-5924 [email protected] Frank Andrasik Department of Psychology University of West Florida Pensacola, FL 32514-5751 [email protected] Michael L.Matson Department of Psychology Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 ISBN: 978-0-387-09527-1 e-ISBN: 978-0-387-09528-8 DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-09528-8 Library of Congress Control Number: 2008931166 © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Printed on acid-free paper springer.com Contents PART I: INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. History, Overview, and Trends in Child and Adolescent Psychological Assessment ....................................... Robert W. Heffer, Tammy D. Barry, and Beth H. Garland 3 Chapter 2. Diagnostic Classification Systems ................................. Jeremy D. Jewell, Stephen D.A. Hupp, and Andrew M. Pomerantz 31 Chapter 3. Interview and Report Writing ......................................... Amie E. Grills-Taquechel, Rosanna Polifroni, and Jack M. Fletcher 55 PART II. ASSESSMENT OF SPECIFIC PROBLEMS Chapter 4. Intelligence Testing ....................................................... R.W. Kamphaus, Cecil R. Reynolds, and Katie King Vogel Chapter 5. Rating Scale Systems for Assessing Psychopathology: The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) ........ Leslie A. Rescorla Chapter 6. Neuropsychological Disorders of Children ..................... WM. Drew Gouvier, Audrey Baumeister, and Kola Ijaola 91 117 151 PART III. ASSESSMENT OF SPECIFIC PYCHOPATHOLOGIES Chapter 7. Assessment of Conduct Problems .................................. Nicole R. Powell, John E. Lochman, Melissa F. Jackson, Laura Young, and Anna Yaros 185 v vi CONTENTS Chapter 8. Evidence-Based Assessment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ........................................................ Paula Sowerby and Gail Tripp 209 Chapter 9. Assessment of Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents ... ......................................................... C. Emily Durbin and Sylia Wilson 241 Chapter 10. Assessment of Bipolar Disorder in Children ................ Stephanie Danner, Matthew E. Young, and Mary A. Fristad 273 PART IV. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEMS DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES Chapter 11. Academic Assessment ................................................. George H. Noell, Scott P. Ardoin, and Kristin A. Gansle 311 Chapter 12. Behavioral Assessment of Self-Injury........................... Timothy R. Vollmer, Kimberly N. Sloman, and Carrie S.W. Borrero 341 Chapter 13. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Psychopathology ...................................................... Jessica A. Boisjoli and Johnny L. Matson 371 PART V. BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Chapter 14. Assessment of Eating Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents .......................................... Nancy Zucker, Rhonda Merwin, Camden Elliott, Jennifer Lacy, and Dawn Eichen 401 Chapter 15. Pain Assessment ......................................................... Frank Andrasik and Carla Rime 445 Chapter 16. Assessment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders .................. Cathleen C. Piazza and Henry S. Roane 471 Index .............................................................................................. 491 List of Contributors Frank Andrasik Department of Psychology, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514, [email protected] Scott P. Ardoin Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, [email protected] Tammy D. Barry Department of Psychology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, [email protected] Audrey Baumeister Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Jessica A. Boisjoli Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Carrie S.W. Borrero Kennedy Krieger Institute Johns Hopkins University Medical School, Baltimore, MD 21205 Stephanie Danner-Ogston The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 Catherine Emily Durbin WCAS Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, [email protected] Dawn Eichen Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 vii viii List of Contributors Camden Elliott Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 Jack M. Fletcher Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 72204 Mary A. Fristad Research & Psychological Services, Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, [email protected] Kristin A. Gansle Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Practice, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, [email protected] Beth H. Garland Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, TX 77845, [email protected] Drew Gouvier Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, [email protected] Amie E. Grills-Taquechel Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 72204, [email protected] Rob Heffer Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, TX 778845, [email protected] Stephen D. A. Hupp Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 Kola Ijaola Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Melissa F. Jackson Department of Clinical and Forensic Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35401, [email protected] Jeremy D. Jewell Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026, [email protected] List of Contributors R. W. Kamphaus College of Education, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. 30302 [email protected] Jennifer Lacy Department of Psychology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 John E. Lochman Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, [email protected] Johnny L. Matson Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, [email protected] Rhonda Merwin Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 George H. Noell Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, [email protected] Cathleen C. Piazza Munroe–Meyer Institute for Genetics and Rehabilitation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 Rosanna Polifroni Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 72204 Andrew M. Pomerantz Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 Nicole R. Powell Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Leslie Rescorla Department of Psychology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010, [email protected] Cecil R. Reynolds Texas A & M University, TX 78602, [email protected] Carla Rime Department of Psychology, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514 iX x List of Contributors Henry S. Roane Munroe–Meyer Institute for Genetics and Rehabilitation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, [email protected] Kimberly N. Sloman Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 Paula Sowerby Department of Psychology, ADHD Research Clinic, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, [email protected] Gail Tripp Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, [email protected] Katie King Vogel College of Education, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Timothy R. Vollmer Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, [email protected] Sylia Wilson WCAS Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 Anna Yaros Center for the Prevention of Youth Behavior Problems, Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Matthew E. Young The Ohio State University, Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Columbus, OH 43210 Laura Young Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Nancy Zucker Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, [email protected] 1 History, Overview, and Trends in Child and Adolescent Psychological Assessment ROBERT W. HEFFER, TAMMY D. BARRY, and BETH H. GARLAND Systematically evaluating human performance and predicting important outcomes emerged in the far reaches of recorded history. For example, Gregory (2007) described that as early as 2200 BC Chinese emperors developed physical abilities, knowledge, and specific skill examinations for government officials and civil servants. However, assessment of children’s abilities and behavior certainly predates even these distant instances of evaluation of adults. We contend that child assessment has taken place as long as parents and other adults have observed and tracked changes in children’s development. Parents notice changes over time within a given child and differences among children in abilities and responses to circumstances. This type of informal evaluation process certainly is a far cry from the empirically based, standardized methods of child and adolescent psychological assessment that have developed over the past 150 years or so, but it is foundational. The current state-of-the-art of assessing childhood psychopathology and developmental disabilities is presented in this volume of a two-volume edited series. Each topic and issue covered includes a common core: adults have an interest in understanding, documenting, and predicting the capacities and experiences of children. In addition, these contributions to the literature have an applied slant: that is, interventions designed ROBERT W. HEFFER, BETH H. GARLAND ● Department of Psychology Texas A&M University, 4235 TAMU College Station, TX 778845-4235. TAMMY D. BARRY ● Department of Psychology, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive, 5025 Hattiesburg, MS 39406. J.L. Matson et al. (eds.), Assessing Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities, DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-09528-8, © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 3 4 ROBERT W. HEFFER et al. to influence outcomes emanate from competent assessment. Our psychological assessment approaches have become more sophisticated, but are linked historically to our predecessors’ curiosity about how children grow and learn and what “to do” with this knowledge. In this chapter, we use the words, “child” or “children” to refer to individuals whose chronological age ranges from birth to late adolescence. Otherwise, we note if a particular description applies specifically to an infant/toddler, preschool-aged young child, a school-aged child, or a teenager. First, we present an overview of some of the key historical events that have shaped child assessment today. We promise not to include every detail from Adam and Eve’s parental observations of Cain, Abel, and Seth to the present! Next, we offer an overview of issues central to child assessment methods early in the 21st century. Finally, we suggest overarching trends that we believe are influencing directions for the field of child psychological assessment. SYNOPSIS OF HISTORICAL EVENTS Thorough and intriguing accounts of the historical underpinnings of psychological assessment and testing may be found in Gregory (2007), Kelley and Surbeck (2004), or Sattler (2008). From parental observations and assessment methods in antiquity, fast forward to the early 19th century, when Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, a physician and educator of children with deafness, wrote of his attempts to understand and intervene with Victor, the “Wild Boy of Aveyron” (Shattuck, 1994). Evidently, Victor lived on his own in the woods near Toulouse, France until perhaps age 12 years when he was discovered without verbal language and typical behavior. Itard’s detailed record in 1807, Reports on the Savage of Aveyron, described systematic assessment and intervention methods to rehabilitate the social behavior and language development of this “feral child.” Edouard Seguin, who studied with Itard, established the first education program for mentally retarded children in 1837 (Gregory, 2007; Sattler, 2008). He later designed the Seguin Form Board and continued his innovative and pioneering work with developmentally disabled individuals when he emigrated to the United States. Also in France, Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 distinguished written definitions of mental retardation (idiocy) versus mental illness (dementia) and proposed specific diagnostic criteria for levels of mental retardation (Gregory, 2007; Sattler, 2008). Other trailblazers in psychology focused primarily on assessment of adult mental processes. For example, Wilhelm Wundt, who founded the first psychology laboratory in Leipzieg, Germany in 1879, and Sir Francis Galton in Great Britain established precise, systematic assessments of psychophysiological and sensory experiences. In the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s, psychologists such James McKeen Catell and Robert M. Yerkes instituted research and assessment methods applied to adult mental and intellectual abilities (Gregory, 2007; Sattler, 2008). However, Lightner Witmer’s “Psychological Clinic,” founded at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896, featured intensive case studies of HISTORY, OVERVIEW, AND TRENDS IN CHILD 5 children—and some adults—from the Philadelphia community. Child clients were assessed and treated by a multidisciplinary team using clinical and research-based methods (Cellucci & Heffer, 2001; McReynolds, 1996). In addition, Granville Stanely Hall, founder of the American Psychological Association in 1892, established the “child study movement” in the United States (Fagan & Wise, 1994), laying the groundwork for the development of child assessment as a subspecialty area. The work of Itard, Seguin, and Esquirol and the methods established by adult-focused psychologists—along with the concomitant social changes of the time (Habenstein & Olson, 2001)—set the stage for the invention of the first intelligence test, to be used with children, by Alfred Binet and his colleagues, published as the Binet-Simon Scale in 1905 (Gregory, 2007; Kelley & Surbeck, 2004). Due to laws regarding compulsory school attendance in both France and the United States, assessment methods were needed to identify levels of cognitive abilities and to predict success in various levels of education. In the United States in the early- to mid-1900s, psychologists such as Henry Herbert Goddard, E. L. Thorndike, Lewis M. Terman, Maud Merrill, Florence L. Goodenough, Arnold Gesell, Lucy Sprague Mitchell, and Psyche Cattell established scientific and practical aspects of child psychological assessment upon which current approaches are founded (Kelley & Surbeck, 2004; Sattler, 2008). Following World War II, the evolution of standardized child assessment continued with the publishing in 1948 of R. G. Leiter’s Leiter International Performance Scale and in 1949 of David Weschler’s Weschler Intelligence Test for Children (Boake, 2002; Kelley & Surbeck, 2004). The Leiter was the first nonverbal, culturally fair test of intellectual abilities, most recently revised in 1997. Further readers will recognize that the WISC evidently “caught on,” because as of 2003, it is in its fourth revision, the WISC-IV. Similarly in 2003, the Simon-Binet Scale of 1905 morphed into its fifth revision as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-5. Presently, the concept of intelligence in children and methods for evaluating cognitive functioning have diversified and become more intricate, reflecting the advance of child assessment regarding this complicated construct (Benson, 2003a,b,c; Sattler, 2008). Based in part on developmental theorists’ work (e.g., Piaget, 1970, 1971) “the emphasis [in child assessment in the mid-1900s]:shifted from intelligence testing to the study of personality, social, and motoric factors related to general functioning” (Kelley & Surbeck, 2004, p. 6). For example, in 1959 Anton Brenner published his Brenner Developmental Gestalt Test of School Readiness to evaluate children’s preparedness for entering first grade. In 1961, the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability, in its third revision as of 2001, was published by S. A. Kirk and J. J. McCarthy as an individually administered test of language ability in children (Sattler, 2008). Over this time period, Edgar Doll (whose work spanned from 1912 to 1968) and colleagues used the Vineland Social Maturity Scales, first published in 1936 and revised in 2005 as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II, to assess social, communication, and daily living skills in infants to older adults (Sattler, 2008). Changes in education practices, United States federal laws, and society in general, gave rise from the 1960s to the 1980s to a range of standardized 6 ROBERT W. HEFFER et al. tests of child cognitive abilities and development (Kelley & Surbeck, 2004). For example, in 1967 David Weschler published his downward extension of the WISC, the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). The WPPSI is in its third revision as of 2002. In 1969, Nancy Bayley published the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, which was revised as the Bayley-III in 2005. In addition, Dorothea McCarthy published her McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) in 1970/1972 (Sattler, 2008). The MSCA is a hybrid of intelligence and developmental tests that evaluates verbal, perceptual-performance, quantitative memory, and motor abilities in young children. Assessment of child behavioral, emotional, and personality functioning blossomed in the 1990s, from its humble beginnings with Florence Goodenough’s Draw A Man Test in 1926 and subsequent permutations by John Buck in 1948 and Karen Machover in 1949. Specifically, in 1992 a version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was designed and normed for 14- to 18-year-olds, the MMPI-Adolescent, by James Butcher and colleagues. Also in 1993, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was published by Theodore Millon. Both the MMPI-A and the MACI continue to experience widespread use in research and applied settings as extensive, self-report measures of psychological functioning (Vance & Pumariega, 2001). A welcome addition to the burgeoning body of literature on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 1996, 2003) is the PAI-Adolescent (Morey, 2007). Les Morey adapted the PAI-A for use with individuals aged 12 to 18 years and reported that it demonstrates comparable psychometric properties, practical strengths, and the solid theoretical foundation as its adult-normed predecessor. In addition, between 1998 and 2001, William Reynolds published a self-report measure for individuals aged 12 to 19 years, the Ad...
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