Lecture Exam 4 - Review.docx - Lecture Exam#4 Review 1 Understand what the senses generally do for us Where do the receptors send the information

Lecture Exam 4 - Review.docx - Lecture Exam#4 Review 1...

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Lecture Exam #4 Review 1. Understand what the senses generally do for us. Where do the receptors send the information? - sensory information • continuously surrounds us • gives information about the internal and external environment • detected by receptors and sent to the brain • comes in multiple forms 2. Be able to list examples of the general senses vs. the special senses. • general (touch, pressure, pain, stretch, temperature) • special (taste, smell, sight, hearing, balance) 3. Describe what is meant by the receptive field of a sensory receptor. Which provides a person with more sensitivity: a small receptive field, or a large receptive field? - receptive field • the area of distribution of sensitive ends of the receptor • there is an inverse relationship between field size and the ability to identify the stimulus location • if the field is small: precise location is determined easily • if the field is broad: only the general region can be determined 4. Are general sense organs more likely to be individual cells, or large and complex organs? often exist as individual cells or receptor units 5. List and discuss the various types of general sense organs, including the specific types of sensory information that each one detects. examples: of general sense • – free nerve ending: pain, temperature, and pressure • – tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle: light touch and discriminative touch • – bulbous(Ruffini’s)corpuscle: deep pressure • – lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle: pressure and vibration
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• – (Krause’s) end bulb: light pressure and vibration • – tactile (Merkel) disc: light touch 6. Are special sense organs more likely to be individual cells, or large and complex organs? • Large and complex organs 7. Be able to describe characteristics of gustation, including details of the four different types of gustatory papillae. • works with olfaction • gustatory cells • – taste receptors are located in specialized organs, the taste buds (~40 per taste bud) • – taste buds lie alongside epithelial projections called papillae (4 types) 1) filiform: short spikes on anterior 2/3 of tongue that lack taste buds; detect food texture and manipulate food 2) fungiform: blocklike projections on tip and sides of tongue that have a few taste buds 3) vallate: large papillae in a V formation on the posterior surface of the tongue that contain most of the taste buds 4) foliate: extend as ridges on the lateral tongue; only contain a few taste buds during childhood 8. List and discuss the five basic tastes that are detected by the taste receptors. 1. sweet: organic compounds, such as sugar 2. salt: metal ions, such as sodium or potassium 3. sour: acids, such as hydrogen ions in vinegar 4. bitter: alkaloid substances, such as unsweetened chocolate, nicotine, and caffeine 5. umami: savory substances with a meaty or cheesy flavor; related to amino acids, such as glutamate and aspartate
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9. Be able to describe characteristics of olfaction.
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