Lecture Exam #3 - Review.docx - Anatomy 1 Lecture Exam#3 Review Respiratory system 1 Understand the general functions of the respiratory system Why is

Lecture Exam #3 - Review.docx - Anatomy 1 Lecture Exam#3...

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Anatomy 1: Lecture Exam #3 Review Respiratory system 1. Understand the general functions of the respiratory system. Why is oxygen so important to the body? Allows exchange of gases between air and blood in the lungs Oxygen is used in body cells during aerobic cellular respiration to produce ATP 2. Compare and contrast the conducting zone of the respiratory system with the respiratory zone. Conducting zone moves(filters, heats, humidifies) air Respiratory zone performs gas exchange 3. Name and describe the structures of the upper respiratory tract. Which types of epithelium lines these structures, and how does the epithelium provide extra protection for them? Nasal cavity: hollow space behind nose; heats, moistens, and filter air; glands secrete lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria Paranasal sinuses; help to warm and moisten air; resonate the voice and lighten the skull Pharynx; between the nasal cavity and larynx; passageway for air an food, ands aid in sound production for speech All of these are lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to trap debris 4. List, locate, and discuss the three regions of the pharynx. Nasopharynx: upper; uvula closes it off during swallowing; includes opening to the auditory tube
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Oropharynx: middle; passageway for food and air Laryngopharynx: lower; extends to the larynx; stratified squamous epithelium 5. Name and describe the structures of the lower respiratory tract. Note the various cartilages that support the larynx, and be able to contrast the differences between the true and false vocal folds. Explain the bronchial tree in detail, and know where it enters the lung. Larynx: inferior to the pharynx and superior to the trachea; passageway for air moving in and out of trachea, blocks food, houses vocal cords Epiglottis: flaplike tissue that covers the air passageway of the larynx (glottis, or Rima glottidis) during swallowing Trachea: anterior to esophagus; lined with 15-20 rings between anular ligaments: it filters air and moves trapped particles upward to pharynx Cartilage that support larynx: thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis True vocal folds: they vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from the lungs False vocal folds: have no part in sound production; they protect the true vocal folds Bronchi: right and left airways branching from the trachea - Enters the hilum area of the lung 6. Discuss the structures of the respiratory zone, including the three different types of epithelial tissues present. Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, to alveoli - Simple columnar epithelium - Simple cuboidal epithelium - Simple squamous epithelium 7. Contrast sympathetic vs. parasympathetic effects on the smooth muscle of the tubes in the respiratory zone. Smooth muscle In tube walls can perform bronchodilation (sympathetic) or bronchoconstriction (parasympathetic)
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8. Explain the structure and importance of the alveoli at the respiratory membrane. What are the functions of surfactant cells and macrophages in the alveoli?
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