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Unformatted text preview: MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ORGANISATIONAL Dr Retha Wiesner Organisational Behavior Organisational A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure that have on behavior within organisations, have for the purpose of for applying such knowledge toward applying improving an organisation's effectiveness. effectiveness. Replacing Intuition with Systematic Replacing Study Study Generalisations about behaviour Generalisations are generally wrong are Behavior is generally predictable Systematic study enables Systematic reasonably accurate predictions reasonably Toward an OB Discipline Toward Psychology Social Social Psychology Psychology Sociology Individual Group Anthropology Political Political Science Science organisation organisational Behavior Basic OB Model Basic Independent variables Dependent variables organisational Level Level Group Level Individual Level PRODUCTIVITY ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER JOB SATISFACTION The Evolution in the Ways Organisations Have Looked at Their The Evolution in the Ways Organisations Have Looked at Their Employees Differences are good. There are differences. Everyone’s the same. Everyone’s Organisational behaviour and the new workplace new 1. The work force is changing. 2. The organisation and scheduling of The 3. Customers’ expectations are changing. 4. Organisations are changing. 5. Design and conceptualisation of the Design workplace are changing. workplace 6. Managers must change too. work are changing. work office and The Effective MANAGER Ten roles of an The effective manager effective Interpersonal roles Figurehead – hosting and attending official Figurehead ceremonies. ceremonies. Leadership – creating enthusiasm and Leadership serving people’s needs. serving Liaison – maintaining contacts with Liaison important people and groups. important The Effective MANAGER Ten roles of an effective manager effective (continued) (continued) Informational roles Informational Monitor – seeking out relevant information. Disseminator – sharing relevant information with Disseminator insiders. insiders. Spokesperson – sharing relevant information with Spokesperson outsiders. outsiders. (continued) (continued) The Effective MANAGER Ten roles of an effective manager Ten (continued) (continued) Decisional roles Decisional Entrepreneur – seeking problems to solve Entrepreneur and opportunities to explore. and Disturbance handler – helping to resolve Disturbance conflicts. conflicts. Resource allocator – allocating resources to Resource various uses. various Negotiator – negotiating with other parties. Challenges and Opportunities for OB Challenges Improving Quality and Productivity Improving People Skills Managing Workforce Diversity Responding to Globalisation Empowering People Challenges and Opportunities for OB Challenges Stimulating Change and Innovation Coping with “Temporariness” Declining Employee Loyalty Improving Ethical Behavior Total Quality Management Brings Intense Focus on the Customer Focus Concern for continual improvement Improvement in the quality of everything Improvement the organisation does the Accurate measurement Empowerment of employees FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR INDIVIDUAL Individual Behavior Individual Biographical Characteristics Ability Personality Learning Biographical Characteristics Biographical Age Gender Marital Status Number of dependents Seniority Ability Ability Definitions: Ability An individual's capacity to perform the An tasks in a job tasks Intellectual Ability An individual's capacity to do mental An activities activities Physical ability That required to do tasks demanding That stamina, dexterity, strength and similar skills. skills. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Dimensions Dimension Description Number Aptitude Ability to do speedy and accurate Ability arithmetic computations arithmetic Verbal Comprehension Ability to understand what is read or heard Ability and the relationship of words to each other other Perceptual Speed Ability to visually identify similarities and Ability differences quickly and accurately differences Inductive reasoning Ability to identify a logical sequence in a Ability problem and then solve the problem The Ability-Job Fit The If employee lacks capabilities - will fail If employee is over qualified - satisfactory If performance but dissatisfied performance If employee fits - likely to excel and be If intrinsically satisfied intrinsically Personality Personality Definition: “The consistent psychological pattern within an The individual that affects the way he or she interacts with others and situations.” with Personality Determinants ) Heredity ) Environment ) Situation The Big 5 Personality Factors The A summary of research suggests that five basic personality dimensions underlie all others; 1. Extroversion: sociable, talkative, assertive 2. Agreeableness: good natured, cooperative, trusting 3. Conscientious: responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement - orientated 4. Emotional Stability: calm, enthusiastic, secure or tense, nervous, depressed, insecure 5. Openness to experience: imaginative, artistic, sensitive and intellectual Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Major Locus of Control: The Degree to Which Locus Self Esteem Self Monitoring: A personality trait that Self Emotional Intelligence: A person’s ability to Emotional Self Efficacy: Believing in own ability Believing Self Risk Taking People Believe they are in Charge of their Own Fate measures an individual’s ability to adjust their behaviour to external situational factors be aware of, manage and use emotions appropriately in dealing with people in different situations Perception and Individual Decision Making Perception Perception A process by which individuals by organise and interpret organise their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment What Is Perception? What It is a process by which Individuals: Organise and interpret their sensory impressions, in order to give meaning to their environment (What one perceives may be substantially different (What from reality) from Figure-Ground Illustrations Figure-Ground Transparency 4­4 Factors that Influence Perception Factors Factors in the situation • Time Time • Work setting Work • Social setting Social Factors in the perceiver • Attitudes Attitudes • Motives Motives • Interests Interests • Experience Experience • Expectations Expectations Perceptions Factors in the Factors target target • Novelty Novelty • Motion Motion • Sounds Sounds • Size Size • Background Background • Proximity Proximity Shortcuts in Judging Others Shortcuts Selective Perception: based on interests and background etc. on Halo Effect: general general conclusion based on one trait conclusion Contrast Effects: we don’t we evaluate in isolation evaluate Projection: attributing own attributing characteristics to other people characteristics Stereotyping: judging a person on basis of group they belong to. belong Organisational Applications of Perception Organisational Employment interviews Self-fulfilling prophecies of Self-fulfilling performance performance Performance evaluations Employee effort Employee loyalty Linking Perception and Individual Decision Making Linking Perceptions affect Perceptions awareness of problems analysis of problem interpretations of data judgments of potential outcomes Values and Employee Attitudes Values Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. Attitudes Attitudes Definition: Evaluative statements or Evaluative judgements concerning objects, people or events. people Components of an attitude – – – Cognitive - The opinion or belief segment Affective - The emotional or feeling segment Behavioural - An intention to behave in a way toward someone or something. certain Types of Job Related Attitudes Related Job Satisfaction Job Involvement Organisational Commitment Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Definition: Any incompatibility between two Any or more attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes. behaviour Job Satisfaction and Performance Job Productivity-may go up with job Productivity-may satisfaction at group level, but not at individual individual Absenteeism- appears to go down with Absenteeismincreased job satisfaction increased Turnover-appears to go down with Turnover-appears increased satisfaction, moderated by employee's level of performance employee's Factors that Lead to Job Satisfaction Mentally challenging work Equitable rewards Supportive working conditions Supportive fellow employees Personality-Job fit Organisational Commitment Organisational An affective and emotional attachment held by employees towards their work. Factors of Organisational Commitment Belief in and acceptance of organisational goals. Willingness to exert considerable and sustained effort for organisation COMMITMENT Desire to continue to be part of the organisation Career Principles for Managers Career Be open to discontinuity (moving outside the familiar Be parameters) parameters) The self-designed apprenticeship (temporary sacrifices) Self-reliance through travel Conduct experiments Continue to learn through formal education, participation in Continue external activities, networking and self-development. external Learn, learn, learn (all the time) Build your own networks and reputation widely Consider self-employment Leverage your experience (don’t undersell yourself) Keep your options open (have more than one folder in your Keep ‘portfolio’ ‘portfolio’ Acknowledge your own achievements and those of others Consider finding a reputable mentor or ‘coach’ ...
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