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Module_03_and_04 - Basic Motivation Concepts Basic Dr Retha...

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Unformatted text preview: Basic Motivation Concepts Basic Dr Retha Wiesner Learning Objectives Learning 1 The Motivation Process 2 Motivation Theories 3 Maslow's Need Hierarchy 4 Need for Achievement 5 Motivators and Hygiene Factors 6 Equity Theory 7 Expectancy Theory 8 The Job Characteristics Model Motivation Motivation Willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organisational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need. Need Need Internal state that makes certain outcomes that appear attractive appear (Similar to a value). Figure 6-2 Figure Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Selfactualization Esteem Esteem Social Social Safety Safety Physiological Physiological Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Higher Order Growth Needs Higher Self Actualisation Esteem Social Lower Order Deficiency Needs Safety Physiological Alderfer's ERG Theory Alderfer's Adaption of Maslow's work Three Needs Three Existence Relatedness Growth More than one need may be operative at the same time The stifling of higher level needs causes lower level desires to The increase increase McClelland's Three Needs Theory McClelland's Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Theory X and Theory Y Theory Employer belief Theory X about employees’ Theory Y View of work Dislike and avoid it As natural as rest or play Ability to control Must be coerced, controlled, and threatened Avoid it, seek formal direction Exercise self direction and self-control Security valued over ambition, so no desire to do anything new Management are not the only ones capable of innovation. Attitude toward responsibility Attitude toward innovation Accept it and even seek it Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Contrasting Views Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Traditional View Traditional Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Hertzberg's View Hertzberg's (Motivators) (Motivators) Satisfaction No Satisfaction (Hygiene Factors) (Hygiene Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction Motivation-Hygiene Theory Hygiene FactorsHygiene Company policy Administration Supervision Working conditions Salary Motivating FactorsMotivating Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement McClelland's Theory of Needs McClelland's Need for achievement Personal responsibility Feedback Moderate risk (50% chance) Need for power Need for affiliation Cognitive Evaluation Theory Evaluation Allocating extrinsic rewards for Allocating behaviour previously rewarded intrinsically results in a decrease in the motivation level. the Goal Setting Theory Goal Set specific, difficult, but achievable Set goals goals Provide feedback on goal Provide achievement, preferably self generated generated Ensure individual commitment to Ensure goal goal Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Ignore the inner state of the Ignore individual individual Create extrinsic rewards for desired Create actions actions Classical Conditioning: an individual responds to Classical some stimulus that would not invariably produce such a response response Operant Conditioning: desired voluntary or learnt Operant behaviour leads to a reward or prevents punishment behaviour Impact of Reinforcement Impact Impact of Reinforcement and Punishment: Applying and Withholding Reinforcement Punishment Apply (Positive) Increase Behaviour Decrease Behaviour Withhold (Negative) Decrease Behaviour Increase Behaviour Transparency Master 4-10 Some Organisational Applications Some Use of lotteries to reduce absenteeism Well Pay vs. Sick Pay Employee discipline Developing training programs Mentoring programs Equity Theory Equity Individuals compare job inputs with Individuals outcomes outcomes Compare ratio with that of relevant Compare others others Make choices based on perceived Make level of inequity level Adams Equity Theory Adams You INPUTS OUTPUTS Effort, Risk Effort, Pay, Benefits Skill Skill Status Education Education Promotion Other Person Reducing Inequity Reducing Change inputs (don’t exert as much effort) Change outcomes (increase pay by producing higher Change quantities of lower quality) quantities Distort perceptions of themselves (I’m working way to hard) Distort perceptions of others (Her job isn’r as desirable as I Distort previously thought it was) previously Choose Different Comparative Person (I’m not making as Choose much as my friend but compared to my mum I doing great for my age) my Leave the Field (resign) Vroom's Expectancy Model Vroom's EffortPerformance Expectancy PerformanceReward Expectancy Valence of Rewards Motivation Expectancy Theory Examines Three Relationships Relationships Will effort result in Will effort performance? performance Will performance result in Will performance reward? reward Will rewards result in Will rewards achievement of personal goals? achievement The Job Characteristics Model The Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Guidelines for enriching a job Guidelines Suggested action Combining tasks Forming natural work units Establishing client relationships Core job dimensions Skill variety Task identity Task significance Vertical loading Autonomy Opening feedback channels Feedback Performance Dimensions Performance Ability Performance Motivation Opportunity Motivation: From Concepts to Applications Dr Retha Wiesner Learning Objectives Learning 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 MBO Programs OB Modification Flexible Benefits Comparative Worth Job Redesign Employee Involvement Motivating Professionals, Low - skilled and Motivating temporary employees temporary Management by Objectives (MBO) Management Definition: A program that encompasses program specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit period, with feedback on goal progress. goal Cascading of Objectives Cascading XYZ COMPANY Over al l Or g a n iz a t io n a l Obj ec t iv es D i v i s i o n 1 O b j e c t iv e s D e p a rtm e n t A O b je c t iv e s In d iv id u a l O b je c t i v e s D e p a rtm e n t B O b je c tiv e s I n d iv id u a l O b je c t i v e s D i v i s i o n 2 O b j e c t iv e s D e p a rtm e n t C O b je c t iv e s I n d iv id u a l O b je c t i v e s D e p a rtm e n t D O b je c t iv e s D e p a rtm e n t E O b je c t iv e s D e p a rtm e n t F O b je c t iv e s I n d iv id u a l O b je c t i v e s In d iv id u a l O b je c t i v e s I n d iv id u a l O b je c t i v e s OB Modification Program OB Identification of performance related Identification behaviours behaviours Measurement of behaviours Identification of behavioural Identification contingencies contingencies Development and implementation of Development intervention strategy intervention Evaluation of performance improvement Linking OB Mod and Reinforcement Theory 1 Identify performance-related behavioral events 2 Measure: Baseline the frequency of response 3 Identify existing behavioural contingencies through functional analysis 4a Develop Intervention strategy 4b Apply appropriate strategy 4c Measure: Chart the frequency of response after intervention Problem solved? 4d Maintain desirable behaviour 5 Evaluate for performance improvement Transparency 7­6 Employee Involvement Employee Participative process Uses the entire capacity of Uses employees employees Is designed to encourage increased Is commitment to the organisation's success success Examples of Employee Involvement Programs Involvement Participative Management Representative Participation Quality Circles Employee Stock Ownership Plans How a Typical Quality Team Operates How Identify Identify Problem Problem Decision Select Problem Review Solution Recommend Recommend Solution Solution Review Problem Variable Pay or Performance Based Compensation Variable Payment by: Piece Rate Wage Incentive Plan Profit Sharing Lump Sum Bonuses Based on: Individual productivity Work group productivity Departmental productivity Unit profitability Overall organisation's profit performance Skill-Based Pay Plans Reward Employee Growth and Flexibility. Growth Pay levels based Pay on how many skills employees have on or how many jobs they can do What are Flexible Benefits? What Employees allowed to pick from a menu of benefit Employees options options Vacation options Disability, life insurance plans University tuition reimbursement Alternative Work Schedule Options Alternative Compressed workweek Shorter workweek Flextime Job sharing Telecommuting Family Friendly Organisations Offer an Umbrella of Programs of On-site day care Elder-care referrals Day-care referrals Flexible hours Compressed workweeks Job sharing Telecommuting Temporary part-time employment Relocation assistance for family members of employees Job Redesign Job Job Rotation Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Self Managed Work Teams Implications for Performance and Satisfaction Implications Recognise individual differences Use goals and feedback Allow employees to participate in decisions that Allow affect them affect Link rewards to performance Check the system for equity Share ownership of the organisation Motivating Professionals Motivating Strong, long-term commitment to their field of Strong, expertise expertise Loyalty to profession not employer Need to regularly update knowledge Motivated by job challenge more than money Motivated or promotion or Rewarded by continuing education and Rewarded control over job structure control Motivating Temporary Workers--no Simple Solutions. Solutions. Make permanent status an option Offer training opportunities Be careful mixing permanent Be workers and temps in same work group group Key Issues in Motivation Key Recognise individual differences Use goals and feedback Allow employees to participate in Allow decisions that affect them decisions Link rewards to performance Check the system for equity ...
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