Module_05 - Group Dynamics and Building Teams Teams Dr...

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Unformatted text preview: Group Dynamics and Building Teams Teams Dr Retha Wiesner Building High Performance Teams Building It’s about: It’s We must all lean the same way to get around the We corners (Collins) corners Twenty people in a room doesn’t make a team. Twenty Teams don’t just happen. They have to be developed, facilitated and motivated (Kriegel). developed, Teams are the farraris of work design. They are high Teams performance, but high maintenance and expensive (Lawler). (Lawler). The boat won’t go, if we don’t all row (Mackay) When spiderwebs unite, they can tie a lion (Ethopian When proverbs) proverbs) Clapping with the right hand only will not produce a Clapping noise noise Group Behaviour Model Group Group task Group member resources External conditions imposed on the group Group process Group structure Transparency 9-7 Performance and satisfaction Why Do People Join Groups? Why Security Status Self Esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement Types of teams Types Two types of teams can be identified in an organisation are: Formal teams are created by the organisation as part of its formal structure Self-directed teams are created to increase employee involvement by allowing low-level workers participate in decision making with the goal of improving performance Formal teams Formal Formal teams can be further classified into three categories: Vertical team: composed of a manager and employees in the formal chain of command, typically a single department Horizontal team: composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but from different areas of expertise, two common types are task forces and committees Special-purpose team: created outside the formal organisation structure to undertake a project of special importance or creativity Self-directed teams Self-directed Self-directed teams also can be further divided into three types: Problem-solving team: typically 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work environment Self-directed team: a team consisting of 5 to 12 multiskilled workers who rotate jobs to produce an entire product or service, often supervised by an elected member Virtual team: a team that uses computer technology and groupware so that geographically distant members can collaborate on projects and reach common goals External Conditions Imposed Upon the Group External Organisation strategy Organisation culture Organizational resources Technology Authority structures Formal regulations Personnel selection process Performance evaluation and reward system Union influence Physical work setting Group Member Attributes Group Abilities Personality Characteristics Why Teams? Why Outperform individuals when tasks require Outperform multiple skills multiple judgment experience Better utilise employee talents More flexible and responsive Easier to assemble, deploy, refocus, disband Facilitate employee participation Increase employee motivation Differences between groups and teams groups Work groups vs work teams work individual accountability vs mutual individual accountability and collective performance. performance. compete for individual performance compete approval vs deliberation on how the team can contribute to the organisation. speaking as individuals vs speaking open ended conversations and problem solving is Team Team A group of people who are group committed to a common purpose, for which they hold themselves mutually accountable accountable A Team Environment Team Top management asks for subordinates’ Top input. Communication is open and extensive. Communication Information flows freely throughout the levels of the organisation. Decisionmaking and control generally occur Decisionmaking at all levels through group processes. The emphasis is on self-control and problem The solving. Participation is key to everything. solving. SOME ROUGH TIMES IN WORK TEAMS SOME Teams can open the floodgates of interpersonal Teams conflict, finger pointing, and defused responsibility. Teams involve frequent communication, and Teams communication can be stressful. communication Team building, requires development of interpersonal Team skills as well as training in group problem solving. skills The T-word has also been misused within the The workplace. Team play may be used to mean putting in long hours and making extraordinary sacrifice. Norms Norms Definition: Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group Acceptable that are shared by the group's members. that Common types of norms ® Performance related processes ® Appearance factors ® Informal social arrangements ® How do behaviours become norms? How Carryover from other experiences Primacy: first­ behavior precedents Team norms Explicit statements from leaders or members Critical events in team’s history Importance of Norms Importance Group survival Increases predictability of behaviour Reduces embarrassing interpersonal problems Allows expression of values and group identity. Status Status Definition: A socially defined position or rank given to socially groups or group members by others. groups Examples of what may connote formal status ® Titles ® Relationships ® Pay and Benefits ® Work Schedule ® Office Amenities Size s Smaller groups complete tasks faster s Larger groups typically perform tasks better s Large groups contribute to social loafing s Groups with an odd number of members tend to perform better s Groups of 5 -7 members seem to be a "happy medium" in size COHESIVENESS The extent to which group members feel a The common bond or attraction to task or group. common Agreement on group goals. Frequent interaction among members. Personal attraction among members. Inter-group competition. Favourable evaluation of performance Determinants of Cohesiveness Determinants Time spent together Severity of initiation Group size Gender of members External threats Previous successes Humour Effect of cohesiveness Effect Groups with medium cohesiveness Groups made the best decisions, the poorest decisions occurred in groups with high cohesiveness and no decision procedures (Callaway and Esser, 1984) 1984) TEAMTHINK TEAMTHINK Teams can become so concerned with Teams preserving cohesiveness that they become victims of ‘TEAMTHINK’. become The process whereby highly cohesive The groups suppress critical evaluation in order to achieve concurrence and reduce stress in decision-making. reduce The Downside to Teamthink The Teamthink fosters a “we are right and good Teamthink they are wrong and bad” mindedness. Team competition leads to viewing opponents Team as enemies. Teamthink puts down players who dare to differ about how the game should be played. Teamthink is so concerned about pulling Teamthink together that it discounts self-criticism. together Avoiding the effects of GROUPTHINK Avoiding Open Climate Avoid the isolation of the group Assign members the role of critical Assign evaluator evaluator Avoid being too directive If members are aware of the possibility If of teamthink they can all guard against the symptoms the Social Loafing Social 2+2=3 Tendency of group members to do less than Tendency they are capable of individually, resulting in an inverse relationship between group size and individual performance. individual What is a highly effective team? Highly Effective Teams Alternate Skill Sessions and Action Action Teams at their best engage in a Teams collaborative process of shared leadership and followership. True team action is more like a football True situation where division of effort is meshed into a single co-ordinated result; where the whole is more than the sum of its individual parts ... Each person shoulders a different part of the total job, with each having 100 percent responsibility for success of the whole (Blake & Mouton). Mouton). Highly Effective Teams Encourage Critical Involvement Employee involvement is high in Employee effective teams effective The group unquestionably develops a The sense of participation in the critical determinations and becomes something of a social unit. something Highly Effective Teams Balance Individual and Group Worth Highly Most so-called management teams are not Most teams at all, but collections of individual relationships with a boss in which each individual is vying with every other for power, prestige, recognition, and personal autonomy. Under such conditions unity of purpose is a myth. myth. Highly Effective Teams Are Calmly Supportive Highly The supportive atmosphere of the highly effective The group stimulates creativity. The group does not demand narrow conformity as do the work group under authoritarian leaders (Likert, New patterns of under management). management). Almost without exception, the successful people Almost stress the importance of teamwork ... Teamwork is a tricky business; it requires people to pull together toward shared goals or values. It does not mean that they always agree on the best way to get there. When they don’t agree, they should discuss - even argue - those differences (Robert Waterman: In search of excellence). search Highly Effective Teams are Introspective about the Process Highly The verdict is unanimous that effective teams take The time to examine how well they are doing. how Co-workers can recognise when they are functioning Co-workers as a team through regular self-assessments. Once a work group starts talking about how well it is Once communicating and performing, it is on the road to teamness. The shift to becoming a highly effective team is The facilitated by a tool such as the Signs of Teamness. When it is OK and expected to talk about these signs, a sensitivity to working together improves. Highly effective teams are attentive to continuous quality improvement improvement Quality performance hinges on a work team’s Quality ability to define key input variables (KIVs) and key out output variables (KOVs). Effective teams ask questions. They Effective systematically diagram the variables that affect performance. Effective teams are rigorous about specifications that the customers want/product or service they deliver. deliver. Understanding Team Dynamics Understanding The group dynamics that must take place before The becoming a highly effective work team, if understood, can make the road to arriving at teamness more efficient and much less stressful. efficient Teamwork isn’t simple. In fact it can be a frustrating, Teamwork elusive commodity..Teamwork doesn’t appear magically just because someone mouths the words. It doesn’t thrive just because of the presence of talent or ambition. It doesn’t flourish simply because a team has tasted success. has Sharing of Power in Work Groups Sharing Individuals within a group inevitably experience the Individuals same power concerns that their work group has with the organisation. the Each individual silently asks her- or himself, “Where do I rank in this group?” The up or down feeling is a matter of power within the The group. What makes a work team different from a work group, other than its size, is that a team shares leadership. It means that there is a special sensitivity to sharing It power. This shared power shows up in turn taking in This communication, in performing tasks, and in having an equal say in decisions. equal Values Values Obviously, when people bring varying Obviously, degrees of individualism and friendly world values into a work group, there is a clash of wills. As work groups evolve into teams, As these values will surface. Communication Communication Group communication usually focuses on Group tasks. However, perhaps even more important However, (although rarely a topic on the agenda), there is communication about relationships. The frustrations and tensions that revolve The around getting a task accomplished often concern people differences about what should be done, people resistance to change, and people failure to be responsible. and Work team characteristics: size Work Work team characteristics in terms of size include: Work s The ideal size of work teams is thought to be seven Variations from five to 12 are typically associated with good team performance good s Small teams (two to four members) show more mall agreement, ask more questions ask s Large teams (12 or more) tend to have more Large disagreements disagreements s Work team characteristics: member roles Work Members of successful team are characterised by two Members roles: roles: Task specialist role: a role in which the individual role devotes personal time and energy to helping the team accomplish its task its s Socio-emotional role: a role in which the individual Socio-emotional role provides support for team members’ emotional needs and social unity social s The Task Track The • Leadership/membership decisions. • Dissatisfactions and/or desires expressed. • Proposals debated/decided. • Mission assigned. • Discussion of how the group will be viewed and how it Discussion might have favourable public image. might • A review of its performance. Highly effective teams will develop patterns, traditions, and Highly habits of procedures that sociologists call norms. Highly effective teams encourage differences of opinions. Highly Highly effective groups rarely vote to resolve differences. Highly The Relationship Track The Highly effective teams know that relationship tensions Highly occur, and talking about feelings sometimes is more important than talking about tasks. Highly effective teams, therefore, set aside time to Highly talk about how they feel and whether anyone is listening to their opinions. Relationship tension sometimes is linked to the Relationship communication roles that we play. communication Relationship Roles Relationship To facilitate group communication, various individuals To of a team will play relationship roles. These include: of • • • • Feeling sensitive, one who encourages the less vocal to Feeling ask questions and give their opinions and one who seeks to keep the contribution turn taking balanced. to Harmonise, joker, clown, or tension reliever. Cheerleader or morale booster. Satisfaction tester, one who encourages the team to ask Satisfaction and evaluate how well it is working together. and Communication Roles Communication Communication roles of work team Communication members vary: communication pertaining to task accomplishment, communication pertaining to team relationships, and communication pertaining to self-interest. Self Interest Roles Self Self-interest roles are expresses by communication that Self-interest is directed more at personal advantage and attention getting than for the good of the team. These include: getting • Grandstanding, star, prima donna, and Grandstanding, interrupting behaviours. interrupting • Verbal aggressiveness, boasting, criticising, Verbal threatening, and verbal abuse that discounts the value of others. value • Blocking to the extent that consensus and even Blocking clarification of differences is impossible. clarification • Withdrawal, not following through on Withdrawal, assignments, and not doing one’s fair share. assignments, Role Behaviour (Identifying Roles) Role Is Your Work Group A Team? If So, Is What Roles Are Played By Your Team Members? Members? Each individual has a characteristic way of Each behaving in a group. The Belbin approach identifies eight different The roles, and determines the extent to which a persons behaviour in a group fits into each role. persons Usually people display the characteristics of Usually several roles, and roles may vary. several TEAM DEVELOPMENT TEAM STAGE 1: FORMING STAGE 2: STORMING STAGE STAGE 3: NORMING STAGE STAGE 4: PERFORMING Group development Stage 1: Forming (orientation) (orientation) Establish interpersonal relationships and Establish testing testing Low developmental level Members are mildly to moderately eager have general positive expectations show some concern about what they’ll do, show purpose etc. purpose Group’s work characterised by: low to Group’s moderate task accomplishment moderate Group development Stage 2: Storming (dissatisfaction) (dissatisfaction) Conflict arises, adjust and jockey for roles Low to moderate development Low Group members often experience frustration about Group goals and tasks goals experience feelings of confusion discrepancy between initial hopes and expectations This stage often start later in groups with complex This goals goals Resolution lies in redefining goals and tasks Group development Stage 3: Norming (resolution) (resolution) Group leader emerges and cohesion is established Moderate to high development Group members less dissatisfied as ways of working Group together become clear, develop feelings of mutual respect, harmony, trust - group cohesion respect, Feel pleasure in task accomplishment, begin to feel Feel more self-esteem in relation to group membership and task accomplishment and Stage 3 (continue) Stage This stage may be very short or quite long This depending on: depending the ease of resolving feelings of dissatisfaction, ease of learning new skills, ease quality of interpersonal relationships, quality ability of group to develop norms and ability processes that enhance their ability to work together and to value differences. Group may tend to avoid conflict. Group development Group Stage 4: Performing (production) Teamwork and cooperation High development level Group members have positive feelings Group of eagerness to be part of the team, feel confident about outcomes, work well together, communicate openly, focus their energy on task accomplishment rather than on resistance or dissatisfaction. dissatisfaction. Stages of Group Development Stages Prestage I Stage I Forming Stage II Storming Transparency 9-5 Stage III Norming Stage IV Performing Stage V Adjourning Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms and Productivity and Cohesiveness Performance Norms High Low High High productivity Moderate productivity Low Low productivity Moderate to low productivity Transparency 9-21 Reinvigorating Mature Teams Reinvigorating Effective teams can become stagnant. Success can lead to complacency Success (early successes are often due to having taken on easy tasks). having Prone to suffer from teamthink. What can be done? What Prepare members to deal with the Prepare problem of maturity problem Offer refresher training Offer advanced training Encourage teams to treat their Encourage development as a constant learning experience : continuous improvement experience Wise Use of Teams Wise Teamwork is not something that can be Teamwork ordered, begged, borrowed, or bought. Teamwork in a workplace only comes about Teamwork when management and employees together feel the need for it and can see its advantages. advantages. The team concept has come to stay, and the The sooner organisations realise that adequate preparation and training is required to build high performance teams the quicker results they will get from conducting work in the team way. way. Trust - The Cornerstone of Teamwork Trust 56% of employees indicated there is a lack of trust in their organisation Five Dimensions of Trust •Integrity •Competency •Openness •Loyalty •Consistency Performance Performance Groups must be viewed from the perspective Groups of the entire organisation of Important factors are role perceptions, norms, Important group size and demographics group Cohesiveness Cohesiveness Satisfaction Satisfaction Higher among small groups Higher within groups with uniform status and norms among Higher members members Higher when higher level skills are utilised Higher where work is meaningful Higher when outcomes have significant effects on others Higher when groups experience substantial autonomy Higher when feedback is positive Conflict versus consensus Conflict Although conflict result generally in better Although quality decisions than consensus, ongoing groups must continue to work together. Acceptance for group decisions is higher with consensus as well as satisfaction and desire to continue with the group. It is ideal for each member to feel free to express critical opinions without adverse consequences. opinions ‘Collective wisdom’ - beyond consensus Engender a spirit of mutual respect among members. Exhort all group members not to lock-in on a particular Exhort option. option. Discourage prior lobbying for support on particular options. Delay declaring your own position. Invite input from all group members. Encourage candid expression of ideas. Urge group members to actively listen to the views Urge expressed by others. expressed Insist that all members focus on ideas not people. Foster a commitment to the group’s collective wisdom. ...
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