Unformatted text preview: Leadership
Dr Retha Wiesner Leadership and Management
Leadership Managers who are not Leaders Managers who are also Leaders Leaders who are not Managers Views on leadership
Views John Kotter feels that management is about
coping with complexity. Good management brings about order and
consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing
rigid organisation structures, and monitoring
results against the plans.
Leadership is about coping with change.
Leaders establish direction by developing a vision
of the future; then they align people by
communicating this vision and inspiring them to
overcome Mostly defined as:
Mostly Leadership as “the ability to influence a group toward
the achievement of goals.” The source of this influence may be formal. A person may
assume a leadership role simply because of his/her position.
Not all leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, are all
Non-sanctioned leadership—the ability to influence that
arises outside the formal structure of the organisation—is
often as important as or more important than formal
Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by
formal appointment to lead a group.
formal Effective Leadership
Effective Biological factors
Behavioural styles Situational (transactional) skills
Transformational ability Trait Theories
Trait Leadership Traits:
• Ambition and energy
• The desire to lead
• Honesty and
knowledge Trait Theories of Leadership Seek to differentiate leaders from non- leaders by who they are Overlook needs of followers Fail to clarify trait's relative importance Don't separate cause from effect Ignore situational factors Personality Traits of Leaders
Personality 6 Consistent Traits
that differentiate effective leaders from noneffective leaders;
High Energy Level
Task Relevance & Knowledge
The Desire to Lead
according to followers;
Self Monitors flexible in adjusting their behaviours to situations to be effective. Behavioural Theories
behavioural theories of leadership
Theories of proposing that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from nonleaders
• Trait theory:
Leaders are born, not made.
• Behavioural theory:
Leadership traits can be taught. Ohio State Studies
The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterised by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regards for their feelings. University of Michigan Studies
Emphasising interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual difference among members. productionoriented leader
One who emphasises technical or task aspects of the job. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Seek to differentiate leaders from non- leaders by what they do Still ignore situational factors The Managerial Grid
9 8 1.9
Country Club Management
Thoughtful attention to needs of people for
satisfying relationships leads to a
comfortable, friendly organisation atmosphere
and work tempo. 9.9
Work accomplishment from committed
people, interdepen- dence through a
‘common stake’ in organisation purpose
leads to relationships of trust and respect. Concern for
People 7 6 5 4
3 2 5.5
Adequate organisation performance is possible through
balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining
morale of people at a satisfactory level.
Efficiency in operations results from
Exertion of minimum effort to get required
arranging conditions of work in such a way
work done is appropriate to sustain
that human elements interfere to a
minimum degree. 1
Low 2 3 4
Concern for Production 7 8 9
High Leadership Behaviour
leadership Use of authority by
the manager Area of freedom
subordinates Manager Manager
it Transparency 119 Manager
superior Three Leadership Dimensions
Development of people and ideas People
Welfare and support of people Task Completion of the task Fiedler Contingency Model
Fiedler Effective groups depend upon a proper match
between a leader's style of interacting with
subordinates and the degree to which the
situation gives control and influence to the
leader. Features of the Theory: Identifying Leadership Style Leader-member relations Task Structure Position Power Identifying leadership style:
Identifying Fiedler believed that a key factor in leadership success is the
individual’s basic leadership style. He created the least preferred
co-worker (LPC) questionnaire for this purpose. a. It purports to measure whether a person is task- or
b. The questionnaire contains 16 contrasting adjectives (such
as pleasant-unpleasant, efficient-inefficient, openas
c. It asks respondents to describe the one person they least
enjoyed working with by rating him or her on a scale of
one-to-eight for each of the 16 sets of contrasting
d. Fiedler believes that based on the respondents’ answers to
this questionnaire, he can determine their basic leadership
(cont) e. If the least preferred co-worker is described in
relatively positive terms (a high LPC score), the
respondent is primarily interested in good
relations with this co-worker.
f. If the least preferred co-worker is seen in
relatively unfavourable terms (a low LPC score),
the respondent is primarily interested in
productivity and thus would be labelled task- oriented.
taskAbout 16 percent of respondents cannot be classified
as Fiedler assumes that an individual’s leadership style is fixed. Defining the situation:
Defining After assessing leadership style, it is necessary to match the
leader with the situation. Fiedler has identified three
contingency a. Leader-member relations—The degree of
confidence, trust, and respect members have in
b. Task structure—The degree to which the job
assignments are procedural.
c. Position power—The degree of influence a leader
has over power variables such as hiring, firing,
discipline, promotions, and salary increases
discipline, The next step is to evaluate the situation in terms of these
three contingency variables. a. Leader-member relations are either good or poor.
b. Task structure is either high or low.
Position power is either strong or weak. Fiedler states the better the leader-member relations, the
more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position
power, the more control the leader has.
Altogether, by mixing the three contingency variables, there
are potentially eight different situations or categories in
which leaders could find themselves.
which . Matching leaders and situations
Matching The Fiedler model proposes matching them up to achieve maximum
Fiedler concluded that task-oriented leaders tend to perform better in
situations that were very favourable to them and in situations that were very
unfavourable. a. Fiedler would predict that when faced with a category I, II, Ill, VII, or
VIII situation, task- oriented leaders perform better. b. Relationship-oriented leaders, however, perform better in
moderately favourable situations—categories IV through VI. Fiedler has condensed these eight situations to three. Task-oriented leaders
perform best in situations of high and low control, while relationship-oriented
leaders perform best in moderate control situations.
Given Fiedler’s findings, you would seek to match leaders and situations.
Because Fiedler views an individual’s leadership style as being fixed, there
are only two ways to improve leader effectiveness.
are First, you can change the leader to fit the situation.
The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. . Evaluation:
Evaluation: There is considerable evidence to support at least
substantial parts of the model. If predictions from
the model use only three categories rather than
the original eight, there is ample evidence to
support Fiedler’s conclusions.
There are problems and the practical use of the
model that need to be addressed. The logic
underlying the LPC is not well understood and
studies have shown that respondents’ LPC scores
are not stable.
Also, the contingency variables are complex and
difficult for practitioners to assess. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Relationship Behavior High Low
D Te l l i
ng Task Behavior
willing Able and
unwilling Unable and
willing Unable and
unwilling Follower Readiness High Situation Leadership II Theory
(High) Style of Leader
Behaviour g Su hin ppo rtin ac
Co g High
low directive D
ing (Low) (High) Directive Behaviour
Transparency Master 1113 High directive
low directive D3 Low
D2 D1 Leader-Member Exchange Theory
a. The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of
time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small
group of their followers. b. These individuals make up the in-group—they are trusted, get a
disproportionate amount of the leader’s attention, and are more likely to
receive special privileges. c. The theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction
between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorises
the follower as an “in” or an “out” and that relationship is relatively
stable over time.
stable How the leader chooses who falls into each category is unclear. (See
The leader does the choosing on the basis of the follower’s characteristics. The theory and research surrounding it provide substantive evidence
that leaders do Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Leader-Member Personal compatibility
Subordinate competence Leader
Leader Extroverted personality Formal relations High Interactions
Trust Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate A B C D E F In Group Out Group Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal pathgoal theory
The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organisation. Path-Goal (cont)
Path-Goal 1. One of the most respected approaches to leadership is the
path-goal theory developed by Robert House.
2. It is a contingency model of leadership which extracts key
elements from the Ohio State leadership research on
initiating structure and consideration and the expectancy
theory of motivation.
3. It is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals
and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to
ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall
objectives of the firm.
4. The term path-goal is derived from the belief that effective
leaders clarify the path to help their followers achieve their
work House identified four leadership
behaviours: The directive leader lets followers know what is expected of
The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the
needs of followers.
The participative leader consults with followers and uses
their suggestions before making a decision.
The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and
expects followers to perform at their highest level.
In contrast to Fiedler, House assumes leaders are flexible
and can display any of these behaviours. Two classes of situational or contingency
variables moderate the leadership behaviour:
variables Environmental or outcome relationship. These factors determine the type of
leader behaviour required as a complement if follower outcomes are to be
Personal characteristics of the employee. These determine how the
environment and leader behaviour are interpreted. Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or
stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out.
Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction
when employees are performing structured tasks.
Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees
with high perceived ability or with considerable experience.
Employees with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a
Achievement-oriented leadership will increase employees’ expectancies that
effort will lead to high performance when tasks are ambiguously structured.
Research evidence generally supports the logic underlying the path-goal theory.
Research Path Goal Theory
Environmental contingency factors
• Task structure
• Formal authority system
• Work group Leader behaviour
• Achievement-Oriented Subordinate contingency factors
• Locus of control
• Perceived ability Transparency 1115 Outcomes
• Satisfaction Recent Approaches to Leadership
Recent Attribution Theory-leadership is in the eye of the
Charismatic Leaders-followers attribute many
leadership abilities to people perceived as exhibiting
some leadership qualities
Transactional Leaders-guide followers toward
Transformational leaders--provide stimulation
toward new development and reinvention of the
group Charismatic Leadership
Five such characteristics: They have a vision. They are willing to take risks to achieve that
vision. They are sensitive to both environmental
constraints and follower needs.
constraints They exhibit behaviours that are out of the
ordinary—that differentiate charismatic
leaders from non-charismatic ones.
leaders Charismatic Leadership Theory
Key characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Self Confidence Vision Articulation of vision Strong conviction about vision Behaviour out of the ordinary Perceived as being a change agent Environmental sensitivity How do charismatic leaders actually influence
followers? Four-step process:
followers? The leader first articulates an appealing vision. This vision provides
a sense of continuity for followers by linking the present with a
better future for the organisation.
The leader then communicates high performance expectations and
expresses confidence that followers can attain.
The leader conveys through words and actions a new set of values
and, by his or her behaviour, sets an example for followers to
The charismatic leader makes self-sacrifices and engages in
unconventional behaviour to demonstrate courage and convictions
about the vision.
There is an increasing body of research that shows impressive correlations
between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction
among Are Charismatic Leaders Born or Made?
Learning to become charismatic by following a three-step process:
Learning An individual needs to develop the aura of charisma by
maintaining an optimistic view; using passion as a catalyst for
generating enthusiasm; and communicating with the whole
body, not just with words.
An individual draws others in by creating a bond that inspires
others to follow.
The individual brings out the potential in followers by tapping
into their emotions.
into Charisma appears to be most appropriate when the follower’s task
has an ideological component or when the environment involves
a high degree of stress and uncertainty Transformational Leadership
Most of the leadership theories have concerned transactional leaders.
transactional These kinds of leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction
of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own selfinterests for the good of the organisation. They change followers’ awareness of issues by helping them to look at
old problems in new ways; and they are able to excite, arouse, and
inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals.
inspire Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership—
iit produces levels of follower effort and performance that go beyond
what would occur with a transactional approach alone. Evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly
correlated with lower turnover rates, higher productivity, and higher
employee Visionary Leadership Visionary leadership is “the ability to create and articulate a
realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an
organisation or organisational unit, that grows out of and
improves upon the present.”
This vision is so energising that it “in effect jump-starts the
future by calling forth the skills, talents, and resources to make it
Vision differs from other forms of direction setting in several
ways: “A vision has clear and compelling imagery that offers an innovative
way to improve, which recognises and draws on traditions, and
connects to actions that people can take to realise change.
Vision taps people’s emotions and energy. Properly articulated, a
vision creates the enthusiasm that people have for sporting events
and other leisure-time activities, bringing this energy and
commitment to the workplace.”
commitment Qualities of a Vision:
Qualities The key properties of a vision seem to be
inspirational possibilities that are value cantered,
realisable, with superior imagery and articulation.
Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances
and reflect the uniqueness of the organisation.
People in the organisation must also believe that
the vision is attainable. It should be perceived as
challenging yet do-able.
Visions that have clear articulation and powerful
imagery are more easily grasped and accepted.
imagery Qualities of a Visionary Leader:
Once the vision is identified, these leaders appear to
have three qualities that are related to
effectiveness in their visionary roles:
effectiveness The ability to explain the vision to others.
Ability to express the vision not just verbally
but through the leader’s behaviour.
The third skill is being able to extend the
vision to different leadership contexts.
vision IQ and technical skills are threshold capabilities.” They
are necessary, but not sufficient requirements for
leadership: Self-awareness: Exhibited by self-confidence, realistic selfSelf-awareness: Exhibited
assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humour
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- Spring '11
- Management, Fiedler