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Module_07 - Leadership Leadership Dr Retha Wiesner...

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Unformatted text preview: Leadership Leadership Dr Retha Wiesner Leadership and Management Leadership Managers who are not Leaders Managers who are also Leaders Leaders who are not Managers Views on leadership Views John Kotter feels that management is about John management coping with complexity. Good management brings about order and Good consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organisation structures, and monitoring results against the plans. Leadership is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a vision Leaders of the future; then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles. overcome Mostly defined as: Mostly Leadership as “the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.” The source of this influence may be formal. A person may The assume a leadership role simply because of his/her position. assume Not all leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, are all Not managers leaders. Non-sanctioned leadership—the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organisation—is often as important as or more important than formal influence. Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by Leaders formal appointment to lead a group. formal Effective Leadership Effective Biological factors Personality traits Behavioural styles Situational (transactional) skills Transformational ability Trait Theories Trait Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge Trait Theories of Leadership Seek to differentiate leaders from non- leaders by who they are Overlook needs of followers Fail to clarify trait's relative importance Don't separate cause from effect Ignore situational factors Personality Traits of Leaders Personality 6 Consistent Traits that differentiate effective leaders from non­effective leaders; Honesty Self ­Confidence Ambition High Energy Level Task Relevance & Knowledge The Desire to Lead according to followers; Honesty &Integrity Forward Looking Inspiring Competent Fair Minded Supportive More Recently Self­ Monitors ­ flexible in adjusting their behaviours to situations to be effective. Behavioural Theories Behavioural behavioural theories of leadership Theories of proposing that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from non­leaders • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioural theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Ohio State Studies Ohio consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterised by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regards for their feelings. University of Michigan Studies University employee­oriented leader Emphasising interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual difference among members. production­oriented leader One who emphasises technical or task aspects of the job. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Seek to differentiate leaders from non- leaders by what they do Still ignore situational factors The Managerial Grid The High 9 8 1.9 Country Club Management Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organisation atmosphere and work tempo. 9.9 Team Management Work accomplishment from committed people, interdepen- dence through a ‘common stake’ in organisation purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. Concern for People 7 6 5 4 Low 3 2 5.5 Organisation Management Adequate organisation performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining 9.1 morale of people at a satisfactory level. 1.1 Authority-Obedience Impoverished Management Efficiency in operations results from Exertion of minimum effort to get required arranging conditions of work in such a way work done is appropriate to sustain that human elements interfere to a organisation membership. minimum degree. 1 Low 2 3 4 5 6 Concern for Production 7 8 9 High Leadership Behaviour Continuum Subordinatecentred leadership Boss-centred leadership Use of authority by the manager Area of freedom for subordinates Manager Manager makes ‘sells’ decision decision and announces it Transparency 11­9 Manager presents ideas and invites questions Manager presents tenative decision subject to change Manager Manager presents defines problem, gets limits, suggestions, asks makes group to decision make decision Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by superior Three Leadership Dimensions Three Task-Development-People Development Development of people and ideas People Welfare and support of people Task Completion of the task Fiedler Contingency Model Fiedler Effective groups depend upon a proper match Effective between a leader's style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. leader. Features of the Theory: Identifying Leadership Style Leader-member relations Task Structure Position Power Identifying leadership style: Identifying Fiedler believed that a key factor in leadership success is the Fiedler individual’s basic leadership style. He created the least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire for this purpose. a. It purports to measure whether a person is task- or a. relationship-oriented. b. The questionnaire contains 16 contrasting adjectives (such b. as pleasant-unpleasant, efficient-inefficient, openas guarded, supportive-hostile). guarded, c. It asks respondents to describe the one person they least c. enjoyed working with by rating him or her on a scale of one-to-eight for each of the 16 sets of contrasting adjectives. d. Fiedler believes that based on the respondents’ answers to d. this questionnaire, he can determine their basic leadership style. (cont) (cont) e. If the least preferred co-worker is described in e. relatively positive terms (a high LPC score), the respondent is primarily interested in good personal relations with this co-worker. relations f. If the least preferred co-worker is seen in f. relatively unfavourable terms (a low LPC score), the respondent is primarily interested in productivity and thus would be labelled task- oriented. taskAbout 16 percent of respondents cannot be classified About as either. as Fiedler assumes that an individual’s leadership style is fixed. Defining the situation: Defining After assessing leadership style, it is necessary to match the After leader with the situation. Fiedler has identified three contingency dimensions: contingency a. Leader-member relations—The degree of a. Leader-member —The confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader their b. Task structure—The degree to which the job b. Task —The assignments are procedural. assignments c. Position power—The degree of influence a leader c. Position —The has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases discipline, The next step is to evaluate the situation in terms of these The three contingency variables. a. Leader-member relations are either good or poor. b. Task structure is either high or low. Position power is either strong or weak. Fiedler states the better the leader-member relations, the Fiedler more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has. Altogether, by mixing the three contingency variables, there Altogether, are potentially eight different situations or categories in which leaders could find themselves. which . Matching leaders and situations Matching The Fiedler model proposes matching them up to achieve maximum The leadership effectiveness. Fiedler concluded that task-oriented leaders tend to perform better in Fiedler situations that were very favourable to them and in situations that were very unfavourable. a. Fiedler would predict that when faced with a category I, II, Ill, VII, or a. VIII situation, task- oriented leaders perform better. b. Relationship-oriented leaders, however, perform better in b. moderately favourable situations—categories IV through VI. Fiedler has condensed these eight situations to three. Task-oriented leaders Fiedler perform best in situations of high and low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations. leaders Given Fiedler’s findings, you would seek to match leaders and situations. Given Because Fiedler views an individual’s leadership style as being fixed, there are only two ways to improve leader effectiveness. are First, you can change the leader to fit the situation. The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. . Evaluation: Evaluation: There is considerable evidence to support at least There substantial parts of the model. If predictions from the model use only three categories rather than the original eight, there is ample evidence to support Fiedler’s conclusions. support There are problems and the practical use of the There model that need to be addressed. The logic underlying the LPC is not well understood and studies have shown that respondents’ LPC scores are not stable. are Also, the contingency variables are complex and Also, difficult for practitioners to assess. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Relationship Behavior High Low Low g in at p ic i t ar P Se lli ng ing t ga ele D Te l l i ng Task Behavior Able and Able willing willing Able and Able unwilling unwilling Unable and Unable willing willing Unable and Unable unwilling unwilling Follower Readiness High Situation Leadership II Theory Situation (High) Style of Leader High directive and high supportive Supprtive Behaviour g Su hin ppo rtin ac Co g High supportive and low directive D at eleg ing (Low) (High) Directive Behaviour Moderate High D4 Transparency Master 11­13 High directive and low supportive ti rec Di ng Low supportive and low directive D3 Low D2 D1 Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member a. The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of a. time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. b. These individuals make up the in-group—they are trusted, get a b. disproportionate amount of the leader’s attention, and are more likely to receive special privileges. c. The theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction c. between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorises the follower as an “in” or an “out” and that relationship is relatively stable over time. stable How the leader chooses who falls into each category is unclear. (See How Figure). Figure). The leader does the choosing on the basis of the follower’s characteristics. The theory and research surrounding it provide substantive evidence The that leaders do Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Personal compatibility Subordinate competence Leader Leader Extroverted personality Formal relations High Interactions Trust Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate A B C D E F In Group Out Group Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal path­goal theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organisation. Path-Goal (cont) Path-Goal 1. One of the most respected approaches to leadership is the 1. path-goal theory developed by Robert House. path-goal 2. It is a contingency model of leadership which extracts key 2. elements from the Ohio State leadership research on initiating structure and consideration and the expectancy theory of motivation. 3. It is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals 3. and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the firm. 4. The term path-goal is derived from the belief that effective 4. leaders clarify the path to help their followers achieve their work goals. work House identified four leadership behaviours: The directive leader lets followers know what is expected of The them, etc. them, The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the The needs of followers. The participative leader consults with followers and uses The their suggestions before making a decision. The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and The expects followers to perform at their highest level. In contrast to Fiedler, House assumes leaders are flexible In and can display any of these behaviours. Two classes of situational or contingency variables moderate the leadership behaviour: variables Environmental or outcome relationship. These factors determine the type of leader behaviour required as a complement if follower outcomes are to be maximised. maximised. Personal characteristics of the employee. These determine how the environment and leader behaviour are interpreted. Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or Directive stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out. stressful Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction Supportive when employees are performing structured tasks. Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees Directive with high perceived ability or with considerable experience. Employees with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a Employees participative style. participative Achievement-oriented leadership will increase employees’ expectancies that Achievement-oriented effort will lead to high performance when tasks are ambiguously structured. effort Research evidence generally supports the logic underlying the path-goal theory. Research Path Goal Theory Path Environmental contingency factors • Task structure • Formal authority system • Work group Leader behaviour • Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement-Oriented Subordinate contingency factors • Locus of control • Experience • Perceived ability Transparency 11­15 Outcomes • Performance • Satisfaction Recent Approaches to Leadership Recent Attribution Theory-leadership is in the eye of the Attribution follower follower Charismatic Leaders-followers attribute many Charismatic leadership abilities to people perceived as exhibiting some leadership qualities some Transactional Leaders-guide followers toward Transactional established goals established Transformational leaders--provide stimulation Transformational toward new development and reinvention of the group group Charismatic Leadership Charismatic Five such characteristics: They have a vision. They are willing to take risks to achieve that They vision. vision. They are sensitive to both environmental They constraints and follower needs. constraints They exhibit behaviours that are out of the They ordinary—that differentiate charismatic leaders from non-charismatic ones. leaders Charismatic Leadership Theory Charismatic Key characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Self Confidence Vision Articulation of vision Strong conviction about vision Behaviour out of the ordinary Perceived as being a change agent Environmental sensitivity How do charismatic leaders actually influence followers? Four-step process: followers? The leader first articulates an appealing vision. This vision provides The a sense of continuity for followers by linking the present with a better future for the organisation. The leader then communicates high performance expectations and The expresses confidence that followers can attain. expresses The leader conveys through words and actions a new set of values The and, by his or her behaviour, sets an example for followers to imitate. The charismatic leader makes self-sacrifices and engages in The unconventional behaviour to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision. about There is an increasing body of research that shows impressive correlations There between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers. among Are Charismatic Leaders Born or Made? Are Learning to become charismatic by following a three-step process: Learning An individual needs to develop the aura of charisma by An maintaining an optimistic view; using passion as a catalyst for generating enthusiasm; and communicating with the whole body, not just with words. An individual draws others in by creating a bond that inspires An others to follow. The individual brings out the potential in followers by tapping The into their emotions. into Charisma appears to be most appropriate when the follower’s task Charisma has an ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty Transformational Leadership Most of the leadership theories have concerned transactional leaders. Most transactional These kinds of leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction These of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own selfinterests for the good of the organisation. They change followers’ awareness of issues by helping them to look at They old problems in new ways; and they are able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals. inspire Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership— Transformational transactional iit produces levels of follower effort and performance that go beyond t what would occur with a transactional approach alone. Evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly Evidence correlated with lower turnover rates, higher productivity, and higher employee satisfaction. employee Visionary Leadership Visionary leadership is “the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organisation or organisational unit, that grows out of and improves upon the present.” improves This vision is so energising that it “in effect jump-starts the This future by calling forth the skills, talents, and resources to make it happen.” happen.” Vision differs from other forms of direction setting in several Vision ways: “A vision has clear and compelling imagery that offers an innovative vision way to improve, which recognises and draws on traditions, and connects to actions that people can take to realise change. Vision taps people’s emotions and energy. Properly articulated, a Vision vision creates the enthusiasm that people have for sporting events and other leisure-time activities, bringing this energy and commitment to the workplace.” commitment Qualities of a Vision: Qualities The key properties of a vision seem to be The inspirational possibilities that are value cantered, realisable, with superior imagery and articulation. realisable, Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances Desirable and reflect the uniqueness of the organisation. People in the organisation must also believe that People the vision is attainable. It should be perceived as challenging yet do-able. Visions that have clear articulation and powerful Visions imagery are more easily grasped and accepted. imagery Qualities of a Visionary Leader: Qualities Once the vision is identified, these leaders appear to Once have three qualities that are related to effectiveness in their visionary roles: effectiveness The ability to explain the vision to others. Ability to express the vision not just verbally Ability but through the leader’s behaviour. The third skill is being able to extend the The vision to different leadership contexts. vision IQ and technical skills are threshold capabilities.” They are necessary, but not sufficient requirements for leadership: leadership: Self-awareness: Exhibited by self-confidence, realistic selfSelf-awareness: Exhibited assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humour assessment, Self-management: Exhibi...
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