Module_08 - Power & Politics Power Dr Retha Wiesner...

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Unformatted text preview: Power & Politics Power Dr Retha Wiesner Power Power Definition: Power A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B does things she or he would not otherwise do. Dependency B's relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. requires. Power Power Capacity to influence the behavior of another so Capacity that the other does things they would not otherwise do. otherwise Assumes Potential whether used or not Dependency of other on one with power Discretion of other over own behavior Does not assume Goal compatibility Downward influence alone Differences between Leadership and Power Differences Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Power Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence Leadership, between the goals of the leader and those being led. Goal compatibility The direction of influence: Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s Leadership followers. Leadership research, for the most part, emphasises style. Leadership Power does not minimise the importance of lateral and upward Power influence patterns. The research on power has tended to encompass a broader The area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance. Sources and Bases of Power Sources Where do I get power? Sources: Position Personal characteristics Expertise Opportunity to control information What tools do I have to influence others? Bases: Coercion Reward Persuasion Knowledge Bases of Power (a) Formal Power Bases 1. Coercive Power: 1. Coercive The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of It physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. needs. At the organisational level, A has coercive power over B if A At can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job. Similarly, if A can assign B work activities that B finds Similarly, unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B finds embarrassing, A possesses coercive power over B. possesses Reward Power: Reward The opposite of coercive power is reward power. The People comply because doing so produces positive benefits; People therefore, one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. These rewards can be anything that another person values. These Coercive power and reward power are actually counterparts Coercive of each other. If you can remove something of positive value from another or inflict If something of negative value upon him/her, you have coercive power over that person. If you can give someone something of positive value or remove If something of negative value, you have reward power over that person. something Legitimate Power: Legitimate In formal groups and organisations, the most In frequent access power is one’s structural position. frequent It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. result Positions of authority include coercive and reward Positions powers. Legitimate power, however, is broader than the Legitimate power to coerce and reward. It includes acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organisation. 4. Information Power: Information Refers to power that comes from access to Refers and control over information. When people have needed information, others become dependant on them. (For example, managers have access to data that subordinates do not have). subordinates Personal Power Personal 1. Expert Power: 1. Expert Expert power is "influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge." Expertise has become a powerful source of Expertise influence as the world has become more technological. As jobs become more specialised, we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals. achieve 2. Referent Power: Referent Its base is identification with a person who has Its desirable resources or personal traits. If I admire and identify with you, you can exercise If power over me because I want to please you. power Referent power develops out of admiration of Referent another and a desire to be like that person; it is a lot like charisma. Referent power explains why celebrities are paid Referent millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials. commercials. 3. Charismatic Power: Charismatic Is an extension of referent power stemming Is from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style interpersonal Others follow because they can articulate Others attractive visions, take personal risks, demonstrate follower sensitivity, etc. demonstrate Creation of Dependency Creation Importance Scarcity Non Substitutability Dependency Postulate Dependency The greater B's dependency on A, the The greater power A has over B greater B's dependency increases when A B's controls resources that are: important to B scarce non-substitutable Ways Power holders Get What They Want Want Reason—Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational —Use presentation of ideas presentation Friendliness—Use of flattery, creation of goodwill, acting —Use humble, and being friendly humble, Coalition—Getting the support of other people in the —Getting organisation to back up the request organisation Bargaining—Use of negotiation through the exchange of —Use benefits or favours benefits Assertiveness—Use of a direct and forceful approach such —Use as demanding compliance as Higher authority—Gaining the support of higher levels in the —Gaining organisation to back up requests organisation Sanctions—Use of organisationally derived rewards and —Use punishments punishments Usage of Power Tactics Usage When Managers influenced Superiors When Managers influenced Subordinates Most Popular Reason Reason Coalition Assertiveness Friendliness Friendliness Bargaining Coalition Assertiveness Bargaining Higher authority High authority Sanctions Least Popular Power in Groups: Coalitions Power Those “out of power” and seeking to be “in” will first try to Those increase their power individually. increase If ineffective, the alternative is to form a coalition—an informal If group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue. group The natural way to gain influence is to become a power holder The but this may be difficult, risky, costly, or impossible. In such cases, efforts will be made to form a coalition of two or In more “outs” who, by joining together, can combine their resources to increase rewards for themselves. to Successful coalitions have been found to contain fluid membership Successful and are able to form swiftly, achieve their target issue, and quickly disappear. disappear. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace the Sexual Harassment Defined: "Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s "Any employment." There continues to be disagreement as to what specifically There constitutes sexual harassment: constitutes a. Overt forms of sexual harassment of female employees. a. This includes unwanted physical touching, recurring requests for dates when it is made clear the woman is not interested, and coercive threats that a woman will lose her job if she refuses a sexual proposition. b. The problem today—subtle forms of sexual harassment b. such as unwanted looks or comments, off-colour jokes, sexual artefacts like nude calendars in the workplace, etc. artefacts Politics: Power in Action Politics: Definition: those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organisation, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organisation. the This definition encompasses key elements elements Political behaviour is outside one’s specified Political job requirements. It encompasses efforts to influence the goals, It criteria, or processes used for decisioncriteria, making. It includes such varied political behaviours as It withholding key information from decision makers, whistle blowing, spreading rumours, leaking confidential information, etc. leaking The “Legitimate-Illegitimate” Dimension The Legitimate political behaviour refers to normal everyday Legitimate politics—complaining to your supervisor, bypassing the chain of command, forming coalitions, etc. chain Illegitimate political behaviours that violate the implied rules Illegitimate of the game, such as sabotage, whistle blowing, and symbolic protests, etc. symbolic The vast majority of all organisational political actions are The legitimate. The extreme illegitimate forms of political behaviour pose a very real risk of loss of organisational membership or extreme sanction. membership Factors Influencing Political Behavior (from Figure 12-2) (from Individual Individual factors factors Outcomes Political Behavior Low organisational organisational factors factors High • Rewards Rewards •Averted Averted punishments punishments Factors Influencing Political Behaviour Factors Individual Factors • High self-monitors • Internal locus of control • High-Achievement need • Organisational investment • Perceived job alternatives • Expectations of success Organisational Factors • Reallocation of resources • Low trust • Role ambiguity • Unclear performance evaluation system • Zero-sum reward practices • Democratic decision making • High performance pressures • Self-serving senior managers Political Behaviour Low High Favourable Outcomes • Rewards • Averted punishments Transparency 12-11 Impression Management Techniques Conformity Excuses Apologies Flattery Favours Association Politicking Politicking Frame arguments in terms of organisational Frame goals goals Develop the right image Gain control of organisational resources Make yourself appear indispensable Be visible Develop powerful allies Avoid “tainted” members Support your boss Is a political action ethical? Is Does the Does Is the political Is political action motivated by No action respect YES Is the political YES Is the rights of self serving activity fair and the interests to the equitable? equitable? individuals exclusion of the NO affected? affected? organisation’s goals? goals? NO Yes Unethical Ethical ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/09/2011 for the course MGT 5000 taught by Professor Rethawiesner during the Three '11 term at Southern Queensland.

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