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Module_09 - Conflict management Conflict Dr Retha Wiesner...

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Unformatted text preview: Conflict management Conflict Dr Retha Wiesner Objectives Objectives Understand importance of managing Understand conflict conflict Awareness of skills to improve your Awareness capacity to respond effectively to conflict situations conflict Know how to empower other to manage Know their differences and solve problems together together Conflict Conflict Definition: Conflict is a process that begins when Conflict one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about. party Why is conflict management important in organisations? Why Change is no longer occasional and gradual Change and when familiar boundaries shift, conflict often occurs. often If not managed the organisation’s ability to If manage change effectively is reduced. manage Increased empowerment has created more Increased self expression, therefore more conflict self Increasing external pressures NATURE OF CONFLICT NATURE Cognitive disharmony: difference Cognitive between two or more parties in opinions, values or goals (i.e., a state of disagreement) disagreement) Affective disharmony: negative attitude Affective or emotion in one or both of the parties towards the other (e.g., a state of dislike or annoyance) or Views influencing conflict Views Sum up a view of conflict which has Sum view influenced you i.e. ‘fight the good fight’, ‘get your retaliation first’ your Say something about your beliefs about Say relationships, yourself or other people, which relationships, has affected your responses to conflict in affected certain situations i.e. ‘children should be seen and not heard’, ‘I will survive’, ‘never trust a man bearing gifts’. man How have you used these in dealing with conflict. conflict. What is Stress? Stress is defined as a dynamic Stress condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what constraint or demand he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Potential Sources of Stress Environmental Factors Environmental Organisational Factors o Task demands; Task o Role demands; Role o Interpersonal demands; Interpersonal o Organisation structure; and Organisation o Organisational leadership Individual factors Individual Differences Perception Consequences Of Stress Physiological Symptoms - Changes in an individual's health as a result of stress. individual's Psychological Symptoms - Changes in an individual's attitudes and disposition due to stress. stress. Behavioural Symptoms - Changes in an individual's behavior, including productivity, absence, and turnover, as a result of stress. Conflict management awareness Conflict Self: are you aware of any ways in which you are undermine your own skills during conflicts? undermine Others: sometimes we are strongly affected sometimes by people. Describe people with whom you find it difficult to manage your conflict skillfully? What are they like? What are their patterns in behaviour? patterns Situation: circumstances can affect how we circumstances manage conflict. Are their any particular circumstances which you find difficult? I.e. dealing with bad performance, harassment etc. etc. Self, others, situation Self, Conflicts are often more about relationships Conflicts and differences between people than they are and about issues. about In any given situation, we have most In influence over our self. influence We can influence others but we have less We control over them than we do over our selves. control We have varying degrees of influence over We varying the situation. the We can manage conflict most constructively when: We We understand clearly what we need and We what we can realistically obtain for our self. what When we are able to take into account what When is needed by others, and what they can realistically obtain. realistically When we become aware of, and consider the When demands placed on us, by the situation (the demands needs of customers and colleagues, the requirements to achieve targets and standards etc). What is present in us that influences our judgments of other people? people? Notions of interpersonal attraction – what is pleasant, likeable. what Previous experience – do they remind us of someone? us Our knowledge of types and Our stereotypes – does someone fit into our stereotypes notion of powerful and authoritative. notion What information do we get from other people? people? Non-verbal – body language, mannerisms etc. mannerisms Verbal – language, accent, tone Physical appearance – what people choose to wear, physical characteristics. characteristics. Patterns – repeating behaviour and behaviour breaking from a familiar pattern. pattern. Self/others - What is influential in the relationship between perceiver and other people? people? Contact – is this someone with whom you have much contact? you Identification – shared experience, perceived similarities and differences perceived Friendship/intimacy – degree of closeness, emotional connection. closeness, Situation – what external factors have an influence? Situation The social context – conventions of normally-accepted customs normally-accepted The cultural setting – agreed sets of rules and values shared by groups and organisations organisations The physical environment – space, time ,degree of comfort, threat. ,degree Good judgement involves: Good Being clear about what you Being clear see see Being aware of your own influence Being own Obtaining information from and about Obtaining information others others Balancing the perspectives of yourself, others and the wider situation. others Relax Relax Scan for physical signs Scan physical Breathe Relax joints and muscles Relax Take up a comfortable position Take comfortable Reflect Reflect Pause and notice what others are doing Pause notice Delay evaluation Think positively Think positively Visualise positive outcomes Visualise Listen Respond Respond Say what is affecting you Say what Suggest an alternative Suggest alternative Ask questions Focus on the person person problem and not the The Conflict Process The Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Cognition and Personalisation Intentions Behaviour Perceived conflict Antecedent Conditions • Communication • Structure • Personal variables Felt conflict Transparency 13­6 Conflict-Handling Intentions • Competing • Collaborating • Compromising • Avoiding • Accommodating Stage V Outcomes Increased Group Performance Overt Conflict • Party’s behaviour • Other’s reaction Decreased Group Performance Transitions in Conflict Thought Transitions Traditional View: Traditional Dysfunctional due to poor communications, trust etc. etc Human Relations View: Human Cannot be eliminated and at times can benefit performance performance Interactionist View: Interactionist Encourages conflict to stimulate change and Functional vs Dysfunctional Conflict Functional Functional: Functional: Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance and Dysfunctional: Dysfunctional: Conflict that inhibits group performance Conflict Situational dependent Outcomes Outcomes Increased group performance Improves quality of decisions Stimulates creativity and innovation Encourages interest and curiosity Fosters environment of self improvement Decreased group performance Breeds discontent Threatens survival Reduces group cohesiveness Retards communication Competing Assertiveness Assertive Dimensions of Conflict handling intentions Dimensions Collaborating Unassertive Compromising Avoiding Uncooperative Accommodating Cooperativeness Cooperative The conflict management process The Potential opposition or incompatibility Cognition and personalisation Intentions Behaviour Outcomes Stage 1: Potential opposition or incompatibility Stage Causes of conflict Communication: Misunderstanding and Communication: ‘noise’ in the communication channel ‘noise’ Structure: size, degree of specialisation, Structure: member goal compatibility, leadership styles and degrees of dependence between groups or members or Personal variables: Individual value systems, Personal personality types Stage 2: Cognition and personalisation Stage Perceived conflict: Awareness by one Perceived or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise conflict Felt conflict: Emotional involvement in Felt a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration or hostility frustration Stage 3: Intentions Stage Intentions intervene between people’s Intentions perceptions and emotions and their overt behaviour. These intentions are decisions to act in a given way (conflict handling intentions) intentions) Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Accommodating Competing Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the desire impact on the other parties to the conflict. impact Appropriate when quick, decisive action is vital. On important issues where unpopular actions need On implementing implementing On issues vital to the organisation’s welfare and On when you know you are right. when Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behaviour. Collaboration Collaboration A situation where the parties to a conflict each desire situation to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties to Appropriate to find an integrative solution when both Appropriate sets of concerns are too important to be compromised. compromised. When your objective is to learn. To merge insights from people with different To perspectives. perspectives. To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a To consensus. consensus. To work through feelings that have interfered with a To relationship. relationship. Avoidance Avoidance The desire to withdraw from, or suppress a conflict. Appropriate when an issue is trivial or more important Appropriate issues are pressing. issues When you perceive no chance of satisfying your When concerns. concerns. When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of When resolution. resolution. To let people cool down and regain perspective. When gathering information supersedes immediate When decision. decision. When others can resolve the conflict more effectively. Accommodation Accommodation The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the The opponent’s interests above her or his own. opponent’s Appropriate when you find you are wrong-to allow a Appropriate better position to be heard, to learn and to show your reasonableness. reasonableness. When issues are more important to others than When yourself-to satisfy others and maintain cooperation To minimise loss when you are outmatched and To losing’When harmony and stability are especially important. important. To allow subordinates to develop by learning from To mistakes. mistakes. Compromise Compromise A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing situation to give up something of value. to Appropriate when goals are important, but not worth Appropriate the effort or potential disruption of more assertive modes. modes. When opponents with equal power are committed to When mutually exclusive goals. mutually To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues. To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure As a backup when collaboration or competition is As unsuccessful unsuccessful Stage 4: Behaviour Stage The behaviour stage includes the statements, actions The and reactions by the conflicting parties and This stage is a dynamic process of interaction. You This make a demand on me; I respond by arguing; you threaten me; I threaten you back; and so on. threaten All conflict exists somewhere along a continuum. At All the lower part conflicts are characterised by subtle, indirect and highly controlled forms of tension. Functional conflicts are typically confined to the lower range of the continuum. range Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions Dimensions Competing Assertiveness High Low Collaborating Compromising Accommodating Avoiding Low Cooperativeness High Conflict Intensity Continuum Conflict Annihilatory conflict ( Overt efforts to destroy other party ( Aggressive physical attacks ( Threats and ultimatums ( Overt questioning or challenging of others ( Minor disagreements or misunderstandings No conflict Stage 5: Outcomes Stage Increased group performance Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of Conflict decisions, stimulates innovation and creativity, encourages interest, provides a medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released, and fosters an environment of self-evaluation, change and even transformation. change Decreased group performance: Conflict is destructive when uncontrolled opposition Conflict breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. group. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Conflict Resolution Conflict Stimulation Problem Solving Communication Superordinate Goals Bring in Outsiders Expansion of Resources Restructure the Restructure Organisation Organisation Avoidance Appoint a Devil's Appoint Advocate Advocate Smoothing Compromise Authoritative Command Altering Human Variable Altering Structural Variables Negotiation Negotiation Definition: A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them. rate A Model of Negotiation Model Content Step 1 Ascertain the scope of the exchange Step 2 Determine the negotiating objectives Step 3 Examine suppositions of both parties Step 4 Collect relevant data Step 5 Identify issues, sticking points and trade­offs Step 6 Calculate preliminary bargaining position and ground rules Process Step 7 Reveal other side’s needs and re ­ examine your own needs Step 8 Produce overall bargaining strategy Step 9 Determine possible negotiating options Step 10 Enter into negotiations Distributive Vs. Integrative Bargaining Distributive Bargaining Characteristic Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining Available resources Fixed amount of resources to be divided Variable amount of resources to be divided Primary motivations I win, you lose I win, you win Primary interests Opposed to each other Convergent or congruent with each other Focus of relationships Short term Long term Other’s Aspiration Range Your Concerns Defining the range in Distributive Bargaining Defining Your Target Se ttl em en t R an ge Your Resistance Point Other’s Resistance Point Other’s Concerns Other’s Aspiration Range Other’s Target Staking Out the Bargaining Zones Staking Party A’s aspiration range Settlement Range Party B’s aspiration range Party A’s Party target point point Party B’s Party resistance point point Party A’s Party resistance point point Party B’s Party target point point Negotiator-Opponent Interaction Negotiator-Opponent Demands and concessions Precedents Experience Role of Personality Traits Third Party negotiations Mediator Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant Third Party Negotiations Third Mediator: neutral party A rbitrator:authority to Arbitrator:authority dictate agreement dictate Conciliator Consultant Factors Affecting Intergroup Relations Relations Time and Goal Orientation Interdependence Task Uncertainty Types of Interdependence Types Pooled A B Sequential A B Reciprocal A B Methods for Managing Intergroup Relations Methods High % Integrating departments % Teams Cost to Cost use of % Task forces each % Liaison roles method method % Planning % Hierarchy Low % Rules and procedures Conflict and Unit Performance Conflict Unit performance High Low A Low B Level of Conflict C High ...
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