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Unformatted text preview: ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE ORGANISATIONAL Dr Retha Wiesner Forces for Change 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6. The changing nature of the work force; The Technology; Economic shocks; Social trends; World politics; and World Competition. Types of change Types Large scale organisational change activities Large must be proactive, purposeful, intentional, proactive purposeful intentional and goal oriented. goal Efforts to stimulate innovation, empower Efforts employees, and introduce work teams are examples of planned-change activities planned-change directed at responding to changes in the environment. First-order change, iis incremental, linear, s and continuous, much like changes associated with TQM Second-order change, which is radical, multidimensional, and discontinuous, much like reengineering. What Can Change Agents Change What Changing Structure involves making an alteration in authority relations, coordination mechanisms, job redesign, or similar structural variables redesign, Changing Technology encompasses modifications in the way work is processed and the methods and equipment used equipment Changing the Physical Setting involves changing the physical layout and workspace changing Changing People refers to changes in employee attitudes, skills, expectations, perceptions, and/or behaviour perceptions, Individual Resistance Individual habit; habit; security; security; economic factors; economic fear of the unknown; and fear selective information processing Organisational Resistance Organisational structural inertia; structural limited focus of change; limited group inertia; group threat to expertise; threat threat to established power threat relationships; and threat to established resource threat allocations allocations Overcoming Resistance To Change education and communication; education participation; participation; facilitation and support; facilitation negotiation; negotiation; manipulation and co-optation; and manipulation coercion. coercion. Typology of change strategies: Three dimensions for analysing change strategy (Dunphy and Stace) (Dunphy proactive versus reactive strategies; proactive incremental versus transformative incremental strategies; and dictated versus collaborative versus dictated delegated strategies delegated Three dimension cont. Three Each of these three dimensions is Each actually a continuum, but for analytical convenience, they can be segmented to give the 2 x 2 x 3 matrix illustrated in figure 12.2. This typology is intended to be This descriptive not prescriptive. descriptive It illustrates the full range of change It strategies available to an organisation, available without commenting on whether or not they are effective. they We also need to consider whether all We twelve of the cells in the matrix represent feasible strategies (i.e. strategies that feasible are possible though not necessarily effective) Proactive-reactive dimension reactive (change occurs in response to specific imminent pressure on the organisation from internal or external forces); proactive (change is initiated without any specific pressure in order to enhance organisational performance or improve organisational climate and culture). Incremental-transformative Incremental-transformative Incremental (change occurs as an orderly evolution comprising a series of small staged adjustments). small Transformative (change involves a radical and abrupt revolution which completely overturns the status quo) Dictated-collaborative-delegated Dictated-collaborative-delegated Relates to both the formulation of the change Relates formulation and its implementation. implementation Dictated (change initiated solely by Dictated management, and implemented under authoritative direction); Collaborative (staff consulted in decisionCollaborative making about change and in implementation); making and Delegated (management defines overall Delegated framework within which staff decide on and implement changes). Resistance management is only one aspect of the implementation strategy for effecting change change In considering whether all twelve cells of the In typology matrix are feasible, one might argue that some of the delegated change strategies some are not necessarily feasible are The proposed typology classifies change The strategies, not change types strategies not Dunphy and Stace's Contingency Model Dunphy Contrast the incrementalist model of Contrast incrementalist organisational change with a transformative transformative model where change occurs rapidly model Incrementalism is not appropriate when there is rapid environmental change. is The incrementalist model is based on a The number of questionable assumptions -senior questionable managers are able to fully anticipate the environmental forces affecting future development, organisations are run by intelligent, proactive managers. Conditions which demand transformation rather than incremental change Conditions In some circumstances, organisations In are faced with the need for radical transformation to avoid extinction. transformation • diversification, acquisition, merger or diversification, shutdowns; • industry re-organisation; and industry • major technological breakthroughs Participative and directive approaches Participative may be equally effective depending on equally the conditions. the Dunphy and Stace (1988) propose a Dunphy contingency model, based on their 2 ¥ 2 contingency based matrix (transformative vs. incremental; collaborative vs. coercive). The change method should be selected The to suit the circumstances. suit They claim that most of the OD literature They and OD practice has been based on the incremental/collaborative approach. Sometimes, however, other methods will other be more appropriate Lewin's Three-Step Model Lewin's Unfreezing the status quo, movement to movement a new state, and refreezing to the new refreezing change to make it permanent. Organisational Development Organisational Includes a number of interventions of Includes systematic planned change undertaken in response to changes in the external environment, that seek to improve organisational effectiveness and employee well-being. well-being. These change techniques or interventions are These diverse, from organisation-wide changes in structure and systems to psychotherapeutic counselling sessions with groups and individuals. individuals. OD methods OD Sensitivity Training - Training groups that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction interaction Survey Feedback - The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested. suggested Process Consultation - Consultant gives a client insight into what is going on around or within and between him or her and other people; identifies processes that need improvement. identifies Team Building - High interaction among group members to increase trust and openness. members Intergroup Development - efforts to improve interactions between groups. Seeks to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other. groups ...
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