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Unformatted text preview: faPe 7 A TL5558 l R t \ l a r g e a n d M e d i u m s i z e d P l a n t a t i o n s ( a l s o k o olre n 's l a r g e na s and Richard Al pfintations) iarms "ni Ctrutctr (e'KEl, U tIf *Lz t13 I iRun Old Jeremiahn (heterophony) !Pitiluaf I r R e b o r n ' R e b o r nA s a i n i stormn "wisn't That a t{ighty (heterop;;;ii qi'itiguir ( h e t e r o p r r o n ys p i r i t u i r ) CityandHouseslaves;SnallPlantaEions(alsoknownasfarms)i eb s f l o n J o n e sr C h u rch n Look D own T bat L oneeooe R oad' - h ynn s tyle tl{ Af ro-American Secular l{usrc. lr |2 *3 t{ l5 t6 *7 l8 c utting ! o- od n L o n g J o h n r - w o rk s o n g 'Juopint Judy - work soog --worf with their in the ales woodyard t r T h eG r e y G o o s e i w o r k s o P g - b . : . 9 , 9 1 : h " n a r r a t i v e s ung-rbl)e h oeing o n a farn oi--i t t"rii" g oose iiittr" cirl; Little Glrlr - gane eong i A i n r t G o n n aR i n g H o l { o r e r - g a n e s o n g gane song ishortenint Breadr i$rrna L ana' - l lOng g aEe n w h o A re t h e G re a te st? r ballard - g ane s oDg InstructionCallsandFleldHollerEorCries t9 lIg lrl *f2 lI3 lrl 'runloanding RaiIsr rallroad by Blacr-iiaaer of "oi"lio"iioo instructloos * t a o p i n g -i l e e ' leader rl{issr"Jiiii-soun[Ing-l.ii s ings i; construction songs called g a n g - p u r p o s e- g i v e t o e ncour age w or ker e ( h e a r d o n b o a t s" o" s o u n d l n g ( the w orda d eckhand ' on calls a re c alled b y i .ft" I eadsnan t o r elays t hen t o t he P ilot i tre t ruriicane-aeck, w ho passesl - forerunner of the blues oarwtrootie i"o.nti"fi-ttoller) forerunner of t'he blues ana ir" " Ql u ia l t i o e T i n e S o n g : i ttio' nl e caII' l' I I r Ir BLUES C O U N T R Y ,C L A S S A N D U R B A N TaPe I \ thefollowingexamplesrePresent}.lississippiDeltaCountryBlues: nspecialRiderBluesnExanpleillustrates Son House I. .i:=i"Ii ; i-;;';;tive i d eveiopnentn t l' sung' Helody texti text is-rooie spoken thln i s l l n i t e d t o a f e w n o t e s i r e l a x b u t h e a vc a l I - E e s P o D S E i y of text' a.ri'r"ry whictr aPPears at tbe " ih o ;r;t; ; "i.n s t r u o ! ; l ; i ' s o l o s aend of Plece. 2 . B o b b y G r a n t . L o n e g o m e A t l a n t a B lru e s r E x a n p l e i l lb etween- - the v oice ustrates th e c l o e e elationship v ocar n elody i nttit-eot' and c g oiL"i-"?t and " "IJip"ntifi i n h eteropbonyi s tall- e n t a l in run EesPonse; bottleneck ' Prelude. 3. guilar; i C h e r r y B a l I B l u e s r E x a m p l ei l l u s t r a t e s i n t lre tn"-i"'"r o f n airative d evelopment n o t e s ; few Helody is linited to a prelude' n c a l l - r e s P o n s e ; - i t r o r t i n s t r u n e n t a leterophony Guitar a nd u oi.i n elody a re i h tlnes. SkiP Jaoes (on TAPE 2 tines) ThefollowingexamplesEePregentSouthwest(Teras,oklahonar CountrY B1ues3 iissouril "' Hopiin" .4."Lightnln|"il{ana&PapaHopkinsrErampleillustrates : ::"l"iil*,'l:":1ffi:i'..i"i,I:l::"1?r1:,,_ r ol"" a oa l oaepenient. r elationship ." p o n " ! l ' a nd v ocar i nltnnent!i' r ather " l"otptnytng 1 l n e i c hor da a r e n eiely a tr ynoed th a n f ollow t he o elody- o f t he s oloist; interlude' instrrnental u nopiin"^" : ii*ii : '*F:i::::.:::"ti:,":.1:u'Y; {. 5.ilightnio.'ilntheEveningtheSunisGoingDowni^ No. 6 . B l i n d L e m o n i B o o s t e r B l u e s i E x a m p lc lears t r a tie e t h e noother v ocal e i l l u er nd s b ut r e fa i J J e f f e rso o p relude; styl;; . i ngtnnental a " ?11:I:?!:n""t toose r elatioaahlp b etseen - - ccotrpanylng t he n elodic i nstrument a nd u ol"i l ine i s P layed- ' o n t be g uitar rine i laita t yPe indeplndent o f t u; i ocal n erg{1'-'- T hi" r f i tl i n' i s u sed a s of " ;;il;;ittni- i s n ot m eant t o f orlos t he i na t"t"iiirvocal nelodY' - 7. Blind Lemon Jefferson 8. Brownie HcGhee and SonnY TerrY n D r y S o u t h e r n B l u e s " S a m ea s N o ' 5 ' nEverybgdYl:-?1":: Example illustrates hollers' use oi falsetto the N B L U E SR o o T s / A F R T C AO R T G T N S taPe 8 A Louisiana/ Field Song frorn Senegal I. the 1959's Both examples were recorded in between'second sounds like I ;;;;"isation c o u s i n s o v e r a - u a c r y a r a f e n c e a n d P i n v isd e t e o f ro pis evidlnce that' oositive language and setting' cri i i i n e a n d " o t "ifi " - o i etlrl' of wes! itrit" the whore and-the Ii i i f l o u r i e b e s " p ni - t t t t U n l t e d S t a t e s ThiE rootg of ttre--Uiues are African' etatement ia ristfully ii""i""ippt r energetic n e l o n c h o l y r [ r r " - i E n J g " r s o n g . E ose hared' u ot t h; s tyle i s ;il-;;;goii", 2. 3. tangle EYe ( v o ca l ) LeroY HiIIer a a n d' P r g ro u P isooere of rK a tte L eft ! { enphlar - .solo r or k E qDgi t he b lack si n g i n g o f r or k- s ongs l s a D a ge- old t ?:k:- ?f D E a cttce u UicU n aae t he b eavy. 1 0 E D e traDsport sork and river iiira ani the caribbean tropical n"I[-oi-airica In n o t o nly u eir able b ut e YeD p leasur able' f t e n druns are o Indiee Africa but in Protestant " i -a i t i t--r itetl d , in t 'E * l ;i;iA thelr Anerica, rbere druns are forbiddent i n t be 8 lmcoPated rtrytbna a r"-iipried. t be n ork b losg a nd t be u eivien io't.ipfay voiceg. rB e rta , B er tar t he t bem e o f t his s oog i n t he e ase o f t be l iving ce n te Es o o- i"ttt, t oier , u bo ! :d r obb ed t o fre e r or ld , [iie' u.r i ht. P "nalty 9 ? t be-Parcbmen pleaee b err;;t; are t ha o nr y- alter oatives t "tir - *' nttt ;;1 ;;o l fork s oogs o f - derlvatloo sqrk o E a tienpteA e aca1 e ' iiEia n orlei p o " i -.ivl1 s ere p opular a noog Y ar b lack c baln g aDgs' -4. F red cDowerr H ; l:i":it?::il.?*';,";1::: ! i!'rliil:1i". . s tyl9l. f ouod for t be v ocal a na i nstrrnental lo t hie b luea r ecording' - Tl" r ePetltive u slng uocal-Iine-uegins t ttgu-ana d esdeode- a u d autipbonal slidesr turne, etc'--ibt i nterplay r 1!l t he i netrunent .ro""lrhtillt r trytbntc- d riviog- r eletltlve suatai;;'; T he i oetruDeot t he v oiie' p""t v ocal p braees' T be "breaksout' b etseeo buzzingr' l nstrunentt c o@on i o t lest a Af E1 ;;; i ;--;;oduced t brous! - use o f uottiEl;i ; ;-Jaciinife s iiaing o n t be gottieneck eultar ls stri;;;: - cnarl:;;ti;ii;-;i-ir'"-rississippi uruel ; i;'i;.--Guit;;-rilcilons-is voice. Delta a s econd B T U E ST Y P E S A N D S T Y L E S : A S U R V E Y Rural CountrY StYles iPeach Tree Bluesi Yank Ranchell (vocal Yank Rachel.l guitar); Sonny Boy williamson (f 94I Cfricago) and ( l r a r m o n i c a )i A l f r e d E l k i n E ( W a s h t u b b a s s ) . Sung in a hollering style that features Helismatie pbrases and variants of d 'ae s c e n d i n g s i n g l e n elodic l ine r epeated t hr ougttout ! h" song in a call-resPonse structure, lttq style holler ie close to tbe vocallzing of tfre styl e o f t tr e s avannab r egion o f W e_stA fr ica . to the nortb of the coastal rala foreet; are Prevalent io tilest African cbaracteristics r epeat,ed l tg i nsistent tl re g u l tar s tyle r itb ptrases a t t be e nd o f, v ocal l inee a nd i te u se -6 f t h e n eutr al t blr d. T be n aEbtub b ass l e r eartb b orr p layed i n n aoy derived f ron t be ' Afrlcan. aocietieg. f. Son Sims Sour (re41-42) --7. 'R a mb l i ng K id B luegr - l { uddy W ater s ( vocal , guitar), Percy Tbonas (guitar) Louis Bord (uandolin) , HenrY Sins (violin) . The J ohnson Boys (1928Heophis) 5. rViolln Blues' T.C. Johnson (guitar) f,aP Hatthew Prater Hayee (vocal and vlolin), (l {a n d o l l n) laPe 88 8. l {uddy l {atere (1e41) rl o u G ot t o T ake S lck a od D ie S ooe o f G ultar f unctione a s a s ecoo d T h e se D ays.r l ttuddy l fatere v ocal I lnes. volce-doubles ' (vo i ce a nd g uitar ) o 9. Sonny terryrs Wasbboard Band rso n a yr s J unpr i nstr uDents - h ar noaica, T he r ashboard wash-tub b asee r asbboard. for tbe African scraPer. is a substltute v oice a nd v oeal Ose o f f alsetto ioterjections. 19. Whistler aod His Jug Band (L927 St. Louls) i tb e J ug B aad S pecialr i nstr unents b anjot guitar and jug (troobone nandolin, violinr sounding instrtnent). Fife and DruD B and rsitting on-Top of the l{orldi; Couptoo Jooes Whistling (vocalr- wbistliog and sashtub). functioos ag a voiee. . 11. (197s t{issiesippi) L2. 13. I{. Fife and Drum Band (L979 ttississippi ) Monarcb Jazz Quartet (f929 Norfolk' VA) 'Fore Dayn rLate at t'lidnight, Just a Li ttle sounding othar Turner (iife-flute instrument) , AEthur Williams (kettle drum) ' i.r,. Boyce (bass druur). Fife and drum bands represeirt an unusual blending of the British fife of nilitary ;;a early American tradition anddrun.playingwithinfluencesofAfrican a nd p olyr hythms' p e i c,tssi oit, i yniopation i Wh a tr E t he H atter N owr H ar mony s inging v er y p opular i n t he U y--vo cal g r oups b ecam e wf,en Lhe blues uere belng created' i6gg'", i n a s u cb g r ouPs r em ained a f eatur e i n a ll q e n re a , t lr E) es- and s tyles o f b lack n usic a nd r - tr lse g r ouPs s ang b oth r eligious i o a i y.' secular naterial. Hersal Thonas tsuitcase (1925 Chicago) Classic Bluegr Blues Piano blues. ll92g and f93g) 15. Hattie Hudson "Doggone Hy Good-Luqk Soul'r ' (L927 Piano DaIIas) 16. CharIeE and Effie TYus (t93f - New York) Willie Tyaon - rDadts Ole HuIe.r Tbe nan-uoEdD duet was popular on stage and'io recordings in the T bese^ t eamg L a i fy d ecades o f t he c entur y. p layed o ut s o' e v er slon o f t he b a ttl e o"oaily o f t b e - s lr es o r p er for ned o ther n ovelty Dieces, often conbining their aloging witb M ost o f t hei r a nd c onedy r outineg. & i n ci n i r er e r agtine v ocals b ut t bese a cts Bongs inc6rporated bl'ues by tbe 1920's. t ?"BytN F TRANSITIoN Rol{R URAL tl. LeroY Carr (I934 New York 18. "SonnY BoY" WiIliamson (1942 Chicago) 19. The Five Breezes (r94s Chicago) 2L. p resent) r (vocar and n B l u e N i g h t B r u e E n t " I 9 Y c aar k w e r L Bl c piano), El"ntii-iscrapperi ieoitar). SonnyBov (vocal and iLove Mr Babyr J irnny R eed 2g. B LuEs ( 1e4s r^ tiie ( P i a n o ) I haruonica)v i s; iii-::?""fi , l::tlill;" Jr l n g D a oho ; r f in " - " t -to a bass) ' ,|I i laE s o Y frongr E arly c bicago b lues' b ackground ir{y B uddy B ruesi - ( !::i-:"car' a g E )' T h i s b voials, guitail ooe-gtring u Ie i.: o :'^".:l":i:*i i i::l J :I*'c o P ;e;i ! : cltb a n re accooPaniment ' blues nDrinkio' tfine Spo-Dee-O-Deer nsticki t {cGh e e a nd b lues ' B u d d i e s .ttitttt & His derived ( r 9 4 9) 22. - v ocolr oI'B C uttin' O u'ti i nstruments i n g b a s s ' d r u r o e ' H a r l e o H a mfa ts fttno' str trunpet, .rttiiit'(r937 New !ork) WHITE B LOES S TILES 23. 24. 25. B u c k H o u n ta i n Band (1929 Vlrginla) Charlle Poole and t he N orth Carol ina R a m b l ere ( 1 9 3 6 - T e n ne sg e e ) George O I C onoer (r9r6 N e s Y o rk) rlodeling Bluegt lnetrunentg' voicer o b anJ ' dii;; l - i i aare, E ach b ll:: b allad' rrilsaukee B luesr of six v e r s e o f t b l ; - ; i " 9 " -f: : : s irs 't s llnes o te t iiii"t""t a ttenpt9 t o i nitate o .Nlgger B luesr an black dlareci,,ro"ir-i-:l.t""tione brack fork on rhythns- T;;i is ".p"toiy thouEht a no e xPreltsion' IAPE 9 ThefollowingexamplesrePresentsoutheast(TennesgeelAlabana, isqggia) country Blues: iHean Conductor Blues" Exanple illustrates Ed BetI 9. ar"u"'"' t ":*:liligil*":liil":l:i:::';;iq':;llyinn)' a s inpre rhe p atter.n;i;iF ; l i f-;uitar-is r hythnil u nit w hich i s - s yn co p a te o t iiolit i s i ndepende nt * p itte r e p e a te d t hr ougtr out t he " na of the vocal line' L g . C l i f f o r d " K e e p l o u r l { l u d o w s P i n n e d . E x a s moothert r a t e s s tYle; a nd o p l e i l l u s v ocal ; i;a;;. . G i bso n - " --i " i .xe d , (A,an.:li::"Ii iiii;;fr;t*ryiili:ilii;ht:labi i :: : "; o er!1;-roose a nd tongei and nore developeo - Uelit"en itraa t bat t iiiii-i"' r i""issippi a ccoBPanying i n d e p e n d .nt- i"f " iionsUip - - c bor ds a r e n er ely r tie i n E tru rn e nt p ar t o f " ii- u;;;l n elodv o 91I" g l;t{ .1"- ? stru me d w ith c ir or ds a llow f or th e c h o rd . T he s tr tJnning- oi t ' This style also ii-ttt"-vocaI- Iin f lertbtllty of tbe oelodic contrast allowe tor'gr"ai;i calI; r e s P o n s e t o t h e v o c a l i s tn o t f o r l o s instErrental does re"fonst l.e. the in"tiGiotal the 'flll nor a-ieioay rhich doubles 1o' iateriaf vocal Iioe. qulter fs geierally l L . G e o r g e . H o t J e l l y R o l I B l u e E r I n f l u e n c e s o f t hieter ophony b etueen { ssissippi D e Ita c a rte r " tyf"i- iotitenect' guitar' tCeorgial votce and Blues of the North: follorlng exanples rePresent classic The L 2 . B e E s i e . H y H . n B l u e s r E x a n p l e i l l u s t r a t e s p i a n o o f t he d ellver y i "iii,"a a cco o p a nr r .ii; sn i rb (voice-piano) ; acconPaoyrng bruec; oi vocar nelodv " n i' i lii- ; a l n s t E r n e" i t -p.i" 1 oin;"i" . t i o o i s- luaepeodent o f v ocal a n d a t t be i aoe t ioe p r elude- ' r nstr r r m entar u e l o d y; i islittnental interlude. 13. H a r S i s a y B l u e s | E x a n p l e i t l u s t r a t e s t ' h e r e f i n e dh e d e r i v e r v o f t Rainey and llck- 91 9P9!1;;iisi-in in which the resPonse classic,'blues; ""ii-iesPonse' i s a a d e b y t h e c r a i i n e t j i n s t r r r m e n ti a l P ne la d e ;l l s ir u ca lnstrrrencal int"ifoae whlch o t E clarinet) in r e s p o o s e s t r u c t u r c ( c p r nre s Ys s ' , n i E i l - i i " I i i p p i n g o f - a t p i - ga e s ea ccoEPany i ng nt; fayir r - tt'ii"-vocarist- U y i n d e p e ndent o eliic- fin.s i s s insins' in"liillii- t zl L4. , . N o wH e G o n e . . I n f l u e n c e d b y e a r l y c l a g s i c b l u e s Example represents tranEformation to " ba i uiro g "n" .b L u e e s t Y l e . Victoria S p i ve Y 15. (there is no exanple no. 15) The following e xa n p l e s r ePr esent U r ban B lueg: -Chicago C ontemPorary B luee- 16. Junior WeIIE ''VietcongBluea',BxanPleillustratesnarrative d evJlopmittt o f t exl r hoge t hene c entrs a round p relude a ud i nstruDental b ippeuinge; ."ii"rp.rary g aooth ;-e;;;i;;;a' i nl6iruae; r elaxed, c lear a nd C all-resllon'e; I oole r eo f t ext. a nd """if-aeiiveryb itween a ccotspanylng_i nstrunent i"iio""nip g par.ingly a -nd a ccente - u ged u elody i s ;;;iT he l ack o f u uira o r v ocal l ine. erolionar i ."o*p"nisrent a llors f or a f rexible il;i;"ilntar vocaf l ine a ad a d ietinct c outrastiog r esponse to-ile v ocal l ine; 1 ,2-bar h arnonic e tructure. - C h i c a g o T ra d i ti o n a l t7. Homegick James B l ues- 'tSonebodyBeenTalkin'.ExanPleill.uetrates Oefia i niluenceE o n u rban b lues. U se o f b ottleg uooth v ocar a nd i nstruDental s tyle n ot - as ;;;i; n or" i nteage t ban e xauple n o. 1 5. I nstru"oa'-ir p refuae-"oa i nterlude; l oose r elationship i""tii - - D ote v oice a nd a cconpanyi3g l netru'ent ;;til;"concept i n a bove e xanPle L 6; c all-regpoDge' IAPE 1 0 -Chicago T raditional 18. HuddY Waters 19. Elnore Janes 20. B.B. King B lues- ,,She l {ove l {e" ( 1g12)--first u rban b lueg r ecording g x'agpfe i llustratee H igsissipPi l le1ta in C n:,cago. b arp' . and g ruitar irf f ""n"6e i n u rbln b lues--vocal, ( voice-barp a nd s ruitar), h arp c "tt_rJJpoo"" ;Ei;.i n i g u i tar a r e p laying e im ilar l inea' H igEiEgippi ,,Couing E on'' B xanPle i }lugtratee i i u rban b lues--use o f b ottlei nftuencei D;itt h Eavier v ocal a nd g ruitar a nd v ocal o""t g ruitar; p relude a ad i nstrunental c all_regponge; rio"; interlude ,tI w ant Y ou S o B ad" ( l,leuphiE) B xauple- i llustrates b lues s tylee a nd s oul n us i c ' i n fl u e nc"" o l- ""vir ai taPe 1 9A rT s r uir .ueuce o N R &B V OCALG ROUPS G O S P E LQ U A R T E T : Fisk Jubilee Quartette l. (r9r3) 2. Cornfed Four (1939) 3. iRoll Jordan Rolln - Refrain section sung b y t h e e n t i r e 9 r 9 u P i c a I l --r e s p o n s e soloists structures usee in- verse elaborate or inprovise free to ;;;;-not A h onogeneouE on- t tt" n elodyconcept - o E t ext. E tresses t he e ven b lend giooi;-"oona b ring oe,o S tngeis a re n ot a llowed t o s ong' t o t he itr"ir p ersonal i nterpretatlonE i na c lntrolred v ocal s tyre o f iiehiv- l yrlcai (Jubilee Quartet) song ls a l.ifui,ty. aplrltual. rl{aitinr A t t be G ater - R efrain s ectioo s ung b v e n t l r e g r o u P i c a l l - r e s P o n s e s t r u c t u r et he n c hansinsn r ead v ocars o- ore ti ; ;;;;---thea f Eee of call are Periotted io H ore e npbasis p laced o n s iyle. iipiouiJ.b o i" o f t he v olle a nd t he r hythns 6e-natural P ercuseive s R bylltnic-vocal s tyle oi-sfeectr. 'lubilee Quartet) of dellvery (tolk-styld song ls a sPlrttual. Ttre G olden Gate Quartet ( 1 9 3 7) 4. ). 'Jonab' n eiratn g ection s ung b y t he - eotire s ololst i nprovises o ver u ns a nd r eg;;G; L ead s lnqer Y Es' p";aA p brasee o f t ert' o f he n hYibtl-" u se u b i rt? " 1 .v oice' Group . oo""piln. thig f9- 'J (Jubllee Ou"iieti iu" s pirltual' t o t be r bvtbnic ;;;;i;-tEt"i" lead 'sringlog-the Blueer ioprovi"f Norfork other-voices functloo as uo..i-stllei Jazz s ecular s ong' ( 1931) l nstruneots'"t The Blind Boys 1I959s) tliy S ouI 1 3 A t {itneggr t be f ree f orm a t 8 otrg e nables l ead o f t he u "glnning dl ilog"i-io "; 1 ;d - o o""i i oy" ;l ttd Picket. 5. Isley Brotbers (I95e) 7. The SouI Stl rrers f e a tu r i n g S a n C o o ke 8. Sa n C o o ke (r9s7) l nirovise a t c 111 c all-resPonse t iieose a nd b tgbly i nprovised ( Gospel Q uar tet) ' - - T he s tylei niluenced t le s tyr e o f w ilEon rsbout. s a D e a s t 5 ( R & Bg r o u P ) . - e x t e n d e d p r eacbing s t- yl: s ith u se o f t ue u eiisuai vocalresPonseSfrootberestoftbegtouP. f r ee H a ve A F r iend A bor r e A ll O ther E' i npr ovised r ead v ocal E tyle' " l ri " ti ti " rI ilou Send Mer vocal stylings E a l o ea s | ; ' taPe l 9B (CONIiNUCd) O I N F L U E N C E N R & B V O C A TG R O U P S G O S P E LQ U A R T E T : I T S nAnyhown- cool-styled lead vocal; use of Golden l. iahs,, (lnown as vocables) by Jubi lee Gate ";;irao and This vocals to support the lead' (f94f) licigrouna Quartet on to ga i e v o c a r . . r " n g J ; ; ; i - t i m vn el [ r e r e a d f r e e dp h r a s i n s and nelodic ;i;;-rifh-;ttthn Lg. Ink SPots (194s) 11. The Orioles (19{7) L2. The Crest ( 1 9 5 8) 13. Ssan Si I v e r t o n e a l{. t { o o n g l ow s ( 1 9 s 4) 15. Soul St i r r e r s ( 194{) R.H. Harris 15. Donlnoes (r es2) ClYde FtcPhatter lead I7. Otis t { i 1 I i a ns & T he Charns (I95{) I8. TenPtationg ( _l-9. Comodores (gosPel quartet) . n l {a yb e . s ane a s t 9 ( Pr edeceEsor R &B g r ouP) ( Pionee r 'Itrs t o o S o o n f o K n o w i - satr e a s 1 9 Laid-back oE R tB g ro u P ) - C hanging l ead v o c a l . ose of gospel stYlings near atYle. coor-vocil end o f, r ecordlng. 116 Candlesr - same aa 19 (R rn' R vocal Ose of qroup). Lald-back or cool vocal style' by lead vocal' vocat lnflections A;il:f rA t{otberrs Cry- - Bass voice provides, r oohsi n oveulot u nder t he s ustained rhythulc T lr ls t yPe o f- vocar o f b a ckg rooni- "ing"i"' f r eei i ..o g d e n t l r ovt6es c onplete v ocal l ead s lnger s ( gosPel q uar tet) ' ;;;-f;; rslncerely'.SdEagll3goapelvocatstyliogs :-;i;;di7g/exvtas d ellverv' ( RsBv ocal s rouP)' rr{alk A rouodr - b ackground s iogers r ePeat r l{alh A r6und' t broughout t he ttr; r efraln ( gosPel q uar tet) 8ong. lead v ocal 'Have H ersy B abyr - b ackground s ingers r epeat - lead s inger t br oughout s ong' p h ra se g o f t he b egan a s a g oepel g rouP' t hen i;;-;;d"o"" ch a n g e d t o R &8. d oo-doo-rop/doo-dooiHearts l {ade o f S toner bv a s a r bvthnic r iff s ung *;;:--i .i i " i n ( R&B g r ouP) i ra l tg ro u na s inger s. g ospel. i nf l uenced .,I W i sh I t l { ould R ainr r n v er ie i ections t he l e a d v o c al " iii"' - b ackgr ound v oiceE n ake r;;e d o nioal;i occasional entqances' 'Jugt To BeiClose To toui - Refrain sung aacfground repeats refrain bv entire gtiop. iin;";lli"-"v irand"during verse entrances. laPe 1 9C I G O S P E L{ U S I C I N R & B : (I9{gs AND 1956s) H OF T H E R O B E R T A A R T I N E R A INFTUENCES O N POPUIARS TYLES O F B LACK T 'IUSIC Bessie oi ilrll D o W h a t Y o u l { a n t l { 'e aT o iD g " l gg n behind volce sololst. rofir o f s l i des , s l ur g i s udden tl re b e a t i u se f r om a yn a ro i c c ootr aat a nd o bvioue s hifts varying tonal ii,; ror to htgh reglster; qual itY. I. The Roberta Hartin Si n g e r s 2. Dinab W a a h i n g to n (195e ) rlt Ign't Fair' sane as 11' Washington o e rfo ro ed s lth t be R ober ta H ar tln s lnger s - for f or s he r as p ianist p er tod o f t lne. ;-;h ;;t tn" SaIIie l{artio Singers for a chile' 3. Laverne Baker (1959s) words rTrylng. sa6e as fl; repetition-of i nfluenced b y D ' B aker w as a n d -p h i ases. Washiogton. 4. Hae willie Ford S nlth 'PeaselnTbeValleyrlotensevocalstyle; slurs, alldes varying tonal qual-itles' -yo " n i c c ontr ast;- l elolog- t or ar d a s lr outia g of stiia-or d erlvery; t r9r? o bvious u aeiven to e nphasis g vlLratoi s trong i hythrnic cords and sYllables tBaby l {ont t i ou all ll aod l'1. of rordg' P lease C one l lomer a ane 5. Big Haybel I e (nid 1959s) 6. SaIlie l { a r t io rL e t 0 g G lvs O ur B est I n S er vicb' as ll; shoutiug style' 7. Big HaYbelle (uid 1950s) i R o ck H ouge' E ane a s t 6; u se o f, g r or ls; o f r or dg a nd P hr ases' re P e ti tloo 8. Aretba FrankI ln 9. Aretba FrankI in ( 1 9 5 7) Ig. Grabam C e ntra l Station (Ie7{ ) s ane 'P re ci o ug L oxdt/r iour ve G ot A F r iend' o f t he d escr ibed a s c bar acter ietic a l l t ralts E xte nded r ecor ding' g o sp e t a r e t r ear a i n t his i se - o f n elisnas a od r ePetition' 'Drorn I n t {y o trn T earsr Gospel-atyled plano' s ane a s l 7 i - G o s p e l- t r a i t s 'Re1ease iourselfr s tyle; u se o f t he t am bour ine' sh o u ti og " ia i tt. c haige o"ir l eai v ocalE, t he g Egan a nd t he e ven t be c ooposition o f o i a n o E tyle- ;"d a od f eoar e v oiceg) ' ( ;i;.d- nale ;;;G o ixed g os pel t he f ir st R o b e rta n "iiio- for ned Tbis ls an exaople of gospel in funk' fi"te. Thc Roots of Rhythg I APE 2 9 & Btues. (blues wirh rhythur) t. C o u n t B a s i e & O r c h e E t r a - - t r O n eO r C l o c k J u m p n ( 1 9 3 7 ) _ Swing Band walking bass fiLe. of boogie blues pianl playersi riffing horn gection.. This swing styla is characteEistic o S o u t h w e s t s i r i n g B a n d s o f r c a n 3 a sC i t y , O k l a h o n a , - i n J -f t h e Hissouri. 2. Jiooy alythe---Chicago (1924) .- boogie-woogie piano. nstrai.ght-stonpn " walking or boogie bass line rncorporated in the style of oost swlng bands during rhe rate rgjg" 1 9 4 0 r . t h i s b o o g i e l i n e i s a r s o f o u n d i n t h e o u " n;a i i , " si ;i clarence ipine rop" snith, wbo began recording in-1gz'e. Blythe served. ag pianist for paradout Records,- pi"virig for and with various brues singers and groupr in bnl""iil= 3. Buddy Johnson--nOne0,CIock Boogietr (I9lS). Boogle basl, horne, - trutrpat rather tban sax solo. .riffing ?he tenor sax ' however, wag the oarn solo instrunent in danceharr-uiues. 4. Tiny Bradghas--iBradshaw Boogiei (I951). Enphasis on beats 2 and'4; solo tenor sax and a shouting blues vocal siyte. 5. Big l{aybelle--'Candyi (f 955). Use of voeal technlques and purion.ot biues-gospetstyler froo tbe goaper tradition. )azz elencntg. 6. Louls Jordan & Hls tynpany piv--rCaldoniar (1945) - R & B coobo. I{alking boogie bass agalnct thc piano shuffle figure; rifflng horn section (alto, tenor, trunpet). tApE 2l Cont. , I R A C E{ U S I C I H T R , A N S I T I O N " I (I915-I948) w E S T C O A S T( L o s A n g e l e s ) E ! . g C onbos 7- clarence "pine Top" snith--.!ine top's Boogie woogietr (r9zg) _ ostinato (merodic,/ har.nonic,/ rhyt-hmic figure re'peated over and over) Boogie-woogie pattern. provid6d the ioncepe for Ligg ins' song (next exanlle). 8. Joa Liggins (piano)--iThe Honeydripper" (19{5-E:crusive Records) - n&BConbo. criaitaaas the firstReB record. OstinaEo tno note boogle bass line; solo tenor sar; horn sectlon.alto, t,enor, and barl gaxea. Liggtne pfayed piano fnr various sourhwesr awlng bands ueroil-f;;ri;;'his own 9roug rwhistling" Alex uoore--rLllrle f{ae Booglcr (195r). The texas "piano blues stylc, that doninated n C A rcoraings nade in Los Angeres and New orleans. Triples aod roirin-g figures. 9- Lg. 11. T-Bone walker--'st,oruy Hondayn (19{g-Black s white Records). The Texas guitar blues style, that doninated R & B recordings uade in Los Angeler. t{alker uas the tBosE, influential brues guitariit auring thc 19{0r t gsg". "no Roy l{ilton (druns I vocal)--rHight and Day (r Hiss you so).,' rnfruenced by the T-Bonc narker's guitir, vocal and arranglng sty1e. L2. Roy Hilton (druns and vocal) --iR.l{. Bluerr (19{5 Sgecialty Records). R & B conbo. blucg ballad. torar piino styie; hornc (alto, teoor, bari sares). teris vocal blues - r ti yflie .g if n : 13. Roy !llton--'Hlltonr Boogier (19{6). BooElcl founiliticjna : r: riffing hornt, soro sar and trunExlt, enpharis on beats z & 4. l ape 2 91 Rhythn e Blues Blues Rooes of R&B L926s 1. 2. 36s (Post-World war I ) M e m p h i sH i n n i e - - n l t e a n d M y c h a u f f e u r n - t e x t i s i n f l u e n c e d !y urban life styles and experiences of blacks; fully developed instrumental introduction; t,extual, harmonic and rhythnic structures are loosely treated and are erpansions of earlier country blues styles. : W a n t ,S o n e O f Y o u r P i e " - f a s t e r t e E p o , Blind Boy Fuller--nl nore rhythnic activity and drive than that found in earlier plues styles; narrative tert with refrain iYou Got fo Give t{e Sone Lovin''; instrumental introduction, interlude and ending. Piece iE danceablei handclapping. 3. Lonnie Jobnaon--rCarelesg Lovor - Dor potished, relaxed voeal and instrutrental styres of delivery; gruitar used only in an , accoopanying role and eophasis is placed on the vofcl; .text is in a narrative form. {. Leroy carr--"Alabana f{onan Blues' - tranaitionar stage of countEy blues to Rhythu and Brueg bartad stylei piano energes as an accompanying ingtruroent in addition to the guitar. 5. Leroy Carr--"1{idnight Hour Bluesi - Carr noved blues singing to a sopbisticated .laycd-backr urban direction. His corlaboratioo with scrapper Blackscll (guitar) helped establish piano-guitar ae the ner distinctive accoopaniment for the blues. 9fhiIe Carr played piano, Blackyell did not nerely strutr chords. rather he played siogle line patterns establishing the guitar as a responsorial voice t,o the piano and/ot voice. w e Ei ti. t: F , l l,PE 2 gt c onE. ( 19!e bass rine figure) TO R r s E O F B L U E S , / B O O GW E O G T Ee i g h t h(-1 8 8 0 s - 1 9 4 0 s ) piiuo & SHUFFLE ooGiE B shuf f le (dotted ;oie-uass line f igure--also.known as the blues) wfrich charlcterizes "jumP' booiie piii.rn 6. 7. - EarLy honkyBrother MontgoEery--"r/icksburg Blueg" LittIe ial, use of octaves tonk blues piano;- it"rionies and f i tI roater foundation for gospel' a n d r n y i n m i t o r i e n t a t i o n ' ng r o v - i d e e h e i roII and soul piano 3ty1e. rhythn and blues, rock giano' LouiEiana was the hooe of the honkY-tonkr andboogie (1939) single note rePeaEed Jimy Yancey--"Yancey St,ompi rn-provising righE hand (uriadii) on i, rv, v' bass ri;a orienrarioo shuffle Boogie. )azz+aiiine-blues S.JimnyYancey--nYanceySpeciali-single-noteldottedrbythnt blues Inprovised bais iine on I, IV, v. (shuffiJ'u..r) right hand' p e t e J o h n s o n / A l b e r t A t n ' i o n s - - " B o o g i eW o o g l " l - { " 1 " - . s t y lje t ro f g. the n u P Boogie that Albert A6nons tatir previiled in swing big bands,- rhythn and blues and rock' blues" ;-;i;;fthe style of New orleans performers' n, rof f Eiiicutarly Shuffle Boogie' (1928) - Pine Lg. plne Top snith--"Pine Top's.Boogi,e Woogler Top S nith k eepe u P a s poken c ome-ntary;. t 'he t cr.n Snith nBoogie Woogie" is useb to give dancd lnatructions' first the is credited sith using the iern on Eecord for was a regulir pianist for Chicago house-rent' He tine. P a rt i e s . iF R a c e\ u s i c i " r . : 1 3 ; . i : : c re45-re48 onr. $*ia'bitilo.,t club Blueg (Loe Anseles) Gani--\.I R & B ballad. Wondertr (t9dS Gilt-Edge). *.d,rt! convers'al.onal vocal style with a fusion of jazz-blues in":::Ta* \:al stylings. solo perf orruer accompanying serf rJo plaf,q Gant-aIso- recorded-a number of up-tenpo boogie hJoogie *.\iqg. Nr[ Ki19.c-'i e --nsrraighten up And Fly Righr,r (r943). rtyred s-\' cmpaniuent; poplor iented vocals Jazz tin Bluesi (19{5 Aladdin Records). R & B i l r ag ll etsl : _:.] \ ' \ - - " D r i f rll l Stown popularized this R e B form and influenced the st1-L*a of tnoie that followed, inctuding Anos uilburn lnd ear\ n.y charles. Brrti\--tr!{erry " . b r lrne rf-3 . l Xnas Babyn (I947). sane features f ound 6ry ch?IIe3*-'hRay charles Bluesr 11949S). sam features found In l3 a;rd t{.- :- lapc 2 08 c oat. ( A M I D 9 T E S TN D K I N G R E C O R D S1 9 4 5 ) THE SoIo Ballads and B:!g Band Arranqenents 5. B u l l l { o o s e J a c k s o n- - n I D o L o v e Y o u , Y e s I D o n ( 1 9 4 6 ? ) . Vocal style eobedded in the tradition of big R & B ballad. Jackson wa!t the featured vocalist and vocallsts. band saxoghonist for different dancehaLL/swing bands (Lucky Tiny Bradstraw)before recording as a solo t{illinderr Jackson, as did the oEher soloist for King nade a artist. number of blues and boogie-based recordings for other conpanies. 7. l{ore of a pop-styled Ivory Joe Huntt--"GuesE whor (I9{9}. detivery and nusical aErangeaent,ichorus of white singers. 8. Lonnie Johnson--iTonorror. Nightr (1948). l{ore of a Pop song. Performed arrangetrentJi chorue of white singers. g _-_ op-Jtyfd wlth a nunbcr of big bands before recording as a solo tb country & tjestern tradition. Influence:-of atrtigts. A BLOES ( R & B ) S 'HOUTERSHD I {OANERS 9. Wynonie Harris--'Good Rockinr Tonighti (t918 King Records). The shouting bluet style rag developcd and gopularized by west Coaat slngers' Eott of rhoo bad bccn. lead singers in various srlng (southwaet) and dancehall blues bands. Boogie shuffle bassi solo Eenor sar; 8-Eo-the-bar-top hat cynbal; bandclaPPing on 2 & {. A SAVOY R ECORDS ND T HE E .AST A ITD W ESI C OAST I nstrunental Conboc - hat (Characterized by a boogle foundation, 8-to-the-bar-top heavy 2 t I backbcet on thc anarei solo tenor or cyubal rhythn; j-' b_ari ltari grouP rlaglng; and a rlff ing horn gccti6a. :: Lg. Hi ld Bi l1 Hoorc (tenor sal) --rge'rc RolI" (I9{Z). Il. Paul Htlltalr, 12. One of the biggest Hucklebueki (I9{8). Paul *ttrtltar--'the songs of the 1940s. Covered by uany artists. loCErnrcotel 13. Big Jay l{cNeely--"Deacon's Hopr (t9{8) (berl sax)--"35-36" Gonna Rock, [ile're Gonna (t9{7) - r i : > 6 -:- - Ra*e\usic in r.::3i.i:: ,P , t l. l( r v tl ,n L , , i i , . ! r rr l uqt;1.,! ^r--L 6t.-^- Club Blues r e { s - r e 4 8c o n ! . (Los Angeles) r---t--t Wondern(19{5 Gilt-Edge). R & B ballad. ,'*,,t! Ga1:-1rt conveEs*al.onal vocal style with a fusion of jazz-blues tn"::lTas.\:al s t y aiIn g s . s o r o p e r f o r m e r a c c o m p a n y i n gs e l f - r soon plae\ Gant recorded-a number of upitenpo-boogie *oog ie *.\igs. sr[ I t , ? ? . C - ' ] , e - - " s r r a i g h t e n U p A n d F t y R i g h t r ( f 9 4 3 ). rtyled s'\' smpaniroeirt; poploriented vocals Jazz r'lrrrles l:+\ \--nDrif t,in Bluesi (t9{5 Aladdin Records). R & B Blrtll:_. srown popularized this R & B forn and influenced lhe st)-:*\ of thole that folloued, including Aoos t{ilburn and ear\ nay charres. Jsrtlec Brs\'i\--n!{erry ln 13. R*t ch::tgi**-hpgy ' [n 13 a;rd t{. :- xnas Babyn (1947). Ea6e features found Charles Bluesr (1949s). same features found t raE 2 l n R H y T H t& B L U E S : T H E E X P A N S T O . N { YEARS 949_t955)', 1 NewOrleans l. . Fats Dooino--nFat f{anr (r919 Imperial Records). Donino's first hit record. High pitched voice. The iwha wha whan verse initates the sound of a nuted truFpet. song is nore of an instrunent,al than vocal. L-u. ^-^*,los- 2. Dave Bartholomw--iCountry Galn (f949). Based on the blues forn and harroonic struiture; unison trorn arrangenent which ' outllnes thc triadtc structuEe of the boogie-w-oogie - patEerni _Texa8 piano style; beginning eoplasis on beaes 2 e 4 (aIso known as the "backbeai..) 3. Fats Dooino--iGolnr Honen (19s2 rnperlal Recordg). R e B A good exanple of Bartholonesrs tradedark ballad. arrangeBent. oee ol solo tenor sar and thc 12-bar blues piano aod top bat cyubal soon become . ---gtructure. rhc triPlet perEanent features of the Ncw orleans counb. Douino continucd to sing in his youthful styl. until. 1955. Then he began singing in tbe losar register of his voice. 4. Fats Dooino--iRose Maryi (r953 Inperlal Rccords). l2-bar bluec; rhythoic Auicar pattern derived frou boogie-woogie; . also sec notog to lI; pEoElncncc of trl,glct piano f iguie;. solo tenor !ar. 5. 5. .: Fats Donlno--iDon',t Blanc rt on t{en (1955 rnperial See notes to other Doaino elloplel. Records). Suiley Lesis--'The Bells Are Ringl,ngr (f 952 Iogerial Records). A typical Bartholoucu aErangeucnt. Solo tenor saxi backbcat on 2 & {t rhunba baar ltnc rbythn. . ttt lThts berr patt.rn in alro found lo Joc Turner,s - - - . rsueet sirtcrn' l i s s z t e n d l n t h r c r o v o r ' r . D o n , t - y q . r . K n o r . FLove You Sor (1951) both Atlantlc's artirtrl. 7. Jiony Yancey--Taoceyrr Bugle Callr (195I). Although yancey is recognlzed ar thG rfatlrer of boogle-woogle., his songsr rctt not rccorded until 1939. Song is based on the rhuuba pattrrn' rh1$rlc a feature also asgoeiated rith the boogieso'otta of Profeaaor Longhalr. 8. Profartor Longhair--"Hardi Gras in Nes Orleansi (f949 Atlantic ,--Recorde). Longhalr lnfluenced the style of oany New orleans piano players. Rhuoba rhytho. 9. Smiley.Lewis--nGrowing Old" (n.d. Iraperial) Rh:rnba rhythrn in piano line and it is doubled on the bass guitar. The rhunba rhythm became standard to the R & B tradition. Lg. Guitar SIin--"The Records). All Things I Used To Don (t953 Specialty cotrponents of the New 0rleans sound. 11. Shirley & Lee--nIrn Goner (f 953 Aladdi.n). The triptet f igure played on boEh Ehe piano and dEuaE becaoe standard in -ng B. The'ostinato r _ h y t - h r n i cp a t t e r n a n d t w o n o t e c h o r d c h a n g e s also became standard in the tradition. L2. Price--"Lawdy tloyd Miss clawdyn (r9s2 specialty Records). Bartholomew used the guitar in both rhythruic lnd nelodic capacities. He often assigned Che guitar bass type figures as in this song. OE, to strengthen tbe Uiss line, he doubled it in Ehe lower register of.the guitar. 13. p!oduced and Larry Darnell--"Irll GeE Along Sooehorn (f949). arranged Paul Gayten. Blg band arrangeunts characterize the acconpanying instruEentation for the laid back ballad style of Darnell. Gayten, a pianist, singer, and bandreader recorded his bands in a variety of blues styles using in thc vain of suing and dancehall blues band, . arrangenents (piano, guiear, basr, druns) tradltionc. and trio 14. Larry Darnell--"Por You t{y Lover (t9{9). in a big band arrangetrnt. Atlaqgic I5. ttt Blues-boogie rooted R e c o r d s ( N e wY o r k f o u n d e d i n 1 9 { 7 ) Jessie Stoners illustration Jessie Stone's lllustration of, an old blues bass pattern. of a boogie woogie ghuffle bass. Stoners illustration of hor he sinpllfied the boogie pattern and adapted or conpored an original bass fron it for his pettorn ic also found in Fatrs Dominr Atlantic hits. 'Rose l{ary'(1953 [This ,.-; Ruth Brown n5-lg-I5 Hoursr (f952) is based on the rhunba bass pattern heard in the last exaople. Gospel vocal stylings. 16. :Ruth Brown--rOh What A Dreani (1954). R.& B ballad. Triplet - -?s piano; background oale voiccr double piano and bass Iines; TAPE 2 3 Anerican Popular t{usic StvleE Fron lg3g-I930s igngs and comedy of Blackface Hinst,rer shows (known as "darkey" and "plantation songE during Ehe Igg6s and 'coonn lrongs, begi-nni,ng in th; rg90s ,ictr the popularity of ragtine & vaudevilie shows) l. An Evening with the l{instrel a) Ethiopian carnival of Melody--includes nswaneeRiver,. by Stephen FostEr; iCarry Ui eack To Old Virginny,, by Black songwriter Jaoes BIand. b) t{onologue-.rDarky Storiesr by t{alter C. Kelly c ) H u D o E o u a . D i a l o g u e' G w i n e r o l f r i c a i by the cirarcoar Twins (t{i11er and Lytes) d) coon song rAt uncle ton't cabin DooEi- I{irlian J. Halley, tenor wlth orchcgtra_ e) coon rong iAt the old plantatlon Barlr collins and -j Harlan (Duet wlth orchcrtra) _ rEnanclpation Handicapr (ColIins f) Coon song and HarIan) g) Coon song rLlttle Alabana Coonr (Shannon euartet) Ragtine (charactarized by a baes pattern of 'un-p"6r played under a syncopated "raggedi oelodic Iine): Scott Joplln. rt{ap1e Leaf Rag" (f 916) Janes Scott iRagtine 0rlolcr nu6-pah,, (f9tf) Ncw Orleana or Dixicland Jazz {. Edward 'rKldn Ory--"Oryr s Creolc trooboncr ). Klng ollver's 6. origlnal Dlrlcland BalIi (I917) creolc (L922) Jazz Band--rDlppernouth Bruegi (r923) Jazz Band--i At lhc Darktorrn-strrrtter's 4L T APB 2 3A Tin pan Allev pop Tradition 1920s_1950s 1. Fred and Adele Astaire--"Fascinating George Gershwin). Rec. 4/79/26 ^ /.. Marion Harris--"The Man r Love" ( rra Gershwin & Ge rsh w i n ). R e c. t 2/g/27 - ,- :.,...1. / .j ,^;,- .- tz\L 3. He1en Morgan--"Why Was f Born?" Hammerstein II). Rec. LO/L6/Zg 4. Russ colombo--"A1r of He" (s. simons, G. Marks) rnstrumentar and vocal styristic foundation (crooning styre) stems from the European tradition. Rec. in 1931.- ,rF' Rhythm" ( Ira Gershwin (Jerome Kern & Bing crosby--"Hg* Deep is the ocean" (rrving Berlin) to n o. 4. R ec. in 1 932 George Oscar see note g -4,7".v,t . ; +^-v--/u,.,\ Ethel Waters w/ Duke Ellington and Orchestra--,,f Can't Give You Anything But Love" (Dorothy Fields & Jimmy lr.n"qhl 7. Ted weems and His orchestra--'rHeartaches " ( J . Krenner & A. Hoffman)--Representative style of orchestras popular during the 1930s-1940s. Rec. in 1933 8. Guy Lombardo & His Royal Canadians--"When My Dream Boat Comes Homef' See note to no. 4. Rec. in 193G 9' Chick Webb & His orchestra (S. Robin & C. Shavers) 10. Andrew sisters--rrJrlr B e w i t h y o u i n A p p l e B l o s s o m rTpm e . , , T h e -gio r i Andrew sisters were t!" most popurai- remare of this vocal tradition. Rec. in 194L 11. Harry James & His Orchestra feat. (Johnny Mercer & Hoagy Carmichael) ,7{z 13. ,'L4. feat. EIla Fitzgerald--"Undecided,, Helen Forrest--,'Sky1arkil Rec. t/Zg/42 P e r r y c o m o - - " , T h e y S a y r t ' s w o n d e r fu l r ' ( r r v i n g B e r l i n b a l l a d o f B e r l i n ' s 1 9 4 G B r o a d w a y s u c c e s s ' a n n i e - e o t y o u r) l t i t eun. 4/2/46. Nat "King" Carmichael). CoIe--"Stardust" Rec. LZ/t9/56 ( l,litchell parish & Hoagy Frank Sinatra--"f ,ve Got you Under My Skin" (Cole porter). Written for the fitm Born to Dance. Rec. L/L2/56 T APE 2 38 ,Jazz & The East Coast Blues Cornpositions of Professional Black (1920s) Songnrriters 1. HouSe Rag" OrcheStra--rrCast1e Society .Tames Reese Europe's (1914). the 1st decade of the 20th Dance music during Europe heLp popularize ptayed for society's eIite. century and fox trot. maxixe, new dances such as ttre tango, Ensemble. Per-f ormed by The Black Music Repertory 2. (Iyr.)--Shuffle Along Eubie B1ake (mus.) & Noble Sisste (1921), Along' two pieces from the musical. feat. "Shuff1e ' rI n H o n e y s u c k l e Time. " Perf ormed by The Black Music Ensemble. Repertory The Connercialization 3. of the Blues W.C. Handy (Father of the Blues)--Interview. of the blues in the commercialization role for some of his inspiration and influences songs. TAPE 2 3C of the The Commercialization Blues his Discusses as well as the most noted blues cont. 1. (interpretation Roll Morton .fetly "New Orleans Sty1e" by Scott ,fop1in. "Map1e Leaf Rag" written 2. W.C. also 3. ,Jazz Hounds--"Bug'le Bluesu ,fohnny Dunn's Original from blues melodies. solos derived improvised 4. in George Gershwin--"Rhapsody dressed in top hat and tails. Syncopated Wuzzy Rag." Handy's Orchestra--'rFuzzy -ragged rhythms. orchestraknown as a society Bluetr & (1924) . ) band (192L). The Blues of t apc 2 3C c ont. Vaudeville Blues 5' 6' Manie Saith--ncrazy Bluesn (1g2g) written Accotrpanied by a )azz enseoble by perry Bradford. Bessie snith--ilst. L o u i - s .B r u e s r b y w . c . H a n d y . R e c o r d e d in L925i pubtished in l9t4)-+;r#n"i in Ehe sryle of vaudeville blues. 7. Sophie Tucker--lSone of lhese Days" (l9lg) 8. Harion Harris--iI Ain't s, Got Nobodyo (I915) fi 4 T APB ? 3DITAPE 2 38 A S U R V E YO F H A R L E MS T R T D Bp r A N O , N . O . E A R T Y J A Z Z , & S WING/BIG/BANDS Guide to abbreviations: as/alto saxophone; b/bass; arr/arranger; bars /baritone saxophone; banjo/bJ; c/cornet; cllclarinet; guitar; ceI/celeste; d/drums; dir/director; e1ec,g. /electric g/guitar ; p/piano; soprano sax-ss, t/trumpet ; tb/trombone; ts/tenor saxophone; vib/vibraphone ; voc/vocal; TAPE 23D (Side A) L. Scott 2. James P. Johnson--"CaroIina 3. Fats Waller--"Honeysuckle JopIin--"Maple Leaf Rag." 3/ttl3s ) . (rec 4/L6) Shout" (Johnson) rec. Rose" (Wal1er-Razaf) 6/14/39 (rec. 4. 'rthe tion" WiIlie Lt/B/57. 5. Edward Kid Ory--"Ory's 6. Original Dixieland Ball" (19L7') 7. King OIiver's Creole Band--"Dippermouth B1ues" (OIiver) feat. OIiver, Louis Armstrong-c; Honore Dutrey-tb; Johnny Dodds-c1; Johnny St. Cyr-bj/voc break; Lil Hardin-p; Baby Dodds-d. (rec. 4/6/23) 8. Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven--Potato Head B1ues (Armstrong) feat. Armstrong-c/soloist; John Thomas-tb; Johnny Dodds-cl/soloist; LiI Armstrong-p; Johnny St. Cyrbjlsoloist; Pete Briggs-tuba; Baby Dodds-d (rec. 5/LA/27). 9. Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five--"West End Blues" (Joe O I i v e r & C l a r e n c e W m s .) f e a t . L o u i s A r m s t r o n g - t , v o c ; Fred Robins-tb; Jimmy Strong-cl; Earl Hines-p; Mancy Cara-bj; Zutty Singleton-d (rec. 6/28/28') 10. Louis Armstrong--"weather Bird" Armstrong-t, EarI Hines-p (rec. 11. Louis Armstrong--"Hee-Bee Jee-Bees" (Armstrong) This piece is credited as the initiator of' )azz scat singing. feat. Louis Armstrong t,voc; Bobby Hackett-c; Jack Teagarden-tb; Peanut Hucko-cl; Ernie Caceres-bars; Dick Cary-p; Jack Lesgerg-b; George Wettling-d (rec. 6/L9/47) Smith--"Echoes of Spring" ( Smith) rec. CreoIe Trombone" (1922) Jazz Band--"At the Darktown Strutter's (Joe oliver) L2/5/28) feat. Louis 72. Sidney Bechet & The New Orleans Feetwarmers--"Maple Leaf T o m m yL a d n i e r - t ; Rap" (Joplin) Teddy feat. Bechet-ss/cI; Nixon-tb; Hank Duncan-p; Ernest Meyers-b; Morris Morland.-d (rec. 9/L5/321. 13. Sidney Bechet--"High Society" feat. Bechet-cl; Max KaminskyFred t; George Lugg-tb; Art Hodes-p; George "Pops" Foster-b; Moore-d/voc (rec. I/29/45). L4. TAPE 23F- (Side B) J. Red Nichols--'rBoneyard Shuf f le" feat. Red Nichols-c; Eddie Lang-g; Vic BertonDorsey-c/as; Arthur Schutt-p; d/tympani (rec . t2/20/26), 15. the Blues'r Frankie Trumbauer and His Orchestra--"Singing (McHugh-Fields) feat. Trumbauer-C-melody sax/soloist; Bix Beiderbecke-c/soloist; Bill Rank-tb; Jimmy Dorsey-cL/ as; Paul Mertz-p; Eddie Lang-g/soloist; Chauncey Morehouse-d (re. 2/4/27'). 15. Frankie Trumbauer....rrIrm Comin Home" (Heryood-Cook) same p e r s o n n e l e x c e p t w i t h E r n e s t t r R e d r rI n g I e - a s ; a n d l t z y Riskin-p (rec. in L927). L7. McKenzie & Condon's Chicagoans--"Nobody's Sweetheart" (Kahn-Ergman-Meyers-Schoebel) feat. Jimmy McPartland-c; Frank Techmacher-cl.; Bud Freeman-ts; Joe SuIlivan-p; Eddie Condon-g; Jim Lannigan-b; Gene Krupa*d. (rec. L6/L2/27) 18. Jack Teagarden--"Knockin' a Jug" (Armstrong-Condon) feat. Teagarden-tb; Louis Armstrong-t; Happy Caldwell-ts; Joe SuIlivan-p; Eddie Lang-g; Kaiser Marshall-d (rec. in L929). 19. Fletcher Henderson & His Orchestra--"Stampede" arr. Redman) rec . 5/L4/26. 20. Don Redmanand His Orchestra--"Chant rec. !/L7 / 40. 21. Jimmie Lunceford and His Orchestra--"Organ Grinder's Swing" (Hudson-Parish-Mi1ls, arr. O1iver) rec. 8/3t/36. - , , 2 t ' , . , , ;. n , . 22. Andy Kirk--"Walkin' Mary Lou Williams-p 23. Cab Calloway and His Orchestra-"Minnie This song initiated the "hi-de-ho" feat. vocalist and director rec. 3/3/3L. 24, Benny Goodman--"After and Swinqin'" rec. 3/2/36. of the Weed" (Redman) (Mary Lou Williams) Yourve Gone" rec. 2 (Henderson, the Moocher" CaIloway as 7/L3/35 feat. Co1umbus" (Henderson) rec. 25. Benny Goodman--"Christopher 3/30/36 26. Benny Goodman--"Flyin' Home" (Hampton) feat. Fletcher Lionel Hampton-vib; Henderson-p; Charlie Christian'1, Bernstein, b; Nick Fatool-d rec. in 1939. 27. the Mood" Intererstingly Glenn Miller--"In Henderson, the younger brother of Fletcher provided the melodic riff for Miller's "In recorded in 1939. j' Horace Henderson the Mood" Artie .CountrY Blues StYles (con'd) style found in this blues The rePetitive r"tording. begins high and vocal line descends usi ng s'li des, turns ' The ant i Phona'l and "t ". interPlaY with " ho t . -irn s t r h m e n t s u s t a i n s a .e hYtu t rhYthmic Oiiving rePetitive The the voice' oattern under " breaksout " between i nti rument The buzzi ng ' vocat Phrases. i nst rument , commoni n West is Produced through Airica, j ack, " " o i ' u b o t t 1e n e c k o r the strings' f.nit" sl iding on gott'teneck guitar is characof the MississiPPi t;;;stic Delta blues stYle' Guitar functions as a second voice' 5. B u k k a W h it e (voice & guitar) 6. Son House (voice & guitar) 7. Robert Johnson (voice & guitar) 8. Lightin'HoPkins (voice & guitar) 9. SonnY TerrY's Washboard Band 1O . Fi fe and Drum Band (MississiPPi 11. Brownie McGhee (guitar/vocal ) Sonny TerrY (harmonica) "Fixin to "DrY SPell Die" 81ues" "Cross Road B'lues" "Tim Moore's Farm "Sonny' s Jump"--i nst ruments washharmonica, wash-tub bass' is a subUoarO. The washboard for the African scraper' ititrt" voice and vocal inui" of falsetto terjections. at Midnight, Just a Little DaY"--Fiie and drum bands of represent an unusual blending American and earlY in" eritish and of mil'itarY fife tradition influences of plaving;itn ;;;; and African per6ussion, syncopation polYrhYthms. "Late 'Fo." "DrY Southern Blues" Doo lbF TrPl 2 { Vocal Groups (BaIlad Groups) 1955-59 Sweetheart, Goodnightn (1953); The Spaniels--"Goodnight' IndependenE moving bass line singing "doo-doo-doo-doo-doo'r background singers Eustain noohs' ahd nahs'l lines; rhythnic throughout songi Spaniels feature only the tenor lead; L2/8 oeter derived fron the gospel tradition. /L. 2. The Spaniels--nYou Gave Me Peace of Mind" (L957). Sameag piano figure. triplet It; 3. Features only one lead; l{oonglows--'sincerely' {t9s$' "ooh-wee-ooh" rhythnic phrases in background vocalsi L2/8 piano neteri triPlet 4. Penguios--"Earth Angel (f955). 5. The Five Satios--'In 6. The Chantels--rf{aybe" (1958). 9rouP3. 7- ' L2/8 ueter; Harptones--igrhat rs Your Decision' (1955) pianoi trwah-wah-rah"rhythnic background vocal. triplet 8. Littlc Anthony & The Inperials--rTears 3ee 17. ,: .- ,' *' l . - ehe Still See lI-3. of Ehe Night" (f956). One of the first See f4. fenale On Hy Pl1loc" (1958). D o o - W a hV o c a l G r o u p s ( u p - t e n p o g r o u p r ) \ chords ish-Booni (195{). Song covered by the cres cuts; . rhythnic use of background vocals who sing regetitive phiasesi accooPanied bY a coobo' ,, ., g . '" (f95{). se t9. 19. Crous--'Geer ll. Otil 12. (r955). Conbined the independently Cadillacl--"sgrrdor novtag bair ylEh the trends established_ by the above three o g E o o r - t g a v .o d c l a p P i n g r 3 o l o t e n o r g a x a n d e o p h a s _ i . s n b e a t s - ha vocal group tradition. to the a ne-r splrit i-er 13. Cadillacr--"Zooo" l{. E I D o r a d o s - - n A t t { y F r o n t , D o o r r ( I 9 5r5 ) . ! vocals sugtain noohsn and "ahs' tf . tfllllana influenced r The Orarnc (f95a). See 19' bY gosPel quartets. (f955). Group'3 stYIe See tl2' The CoaEters--iYakety Yaki (1958). See }L2. Comic arouP' Background '|",'gcaa cton'd) 16. The Shirelles--"I Met Him On A Sunday' (195g). This song contains arr of the basic traits cnat later defined the llotoun vocal and instruuental sound. 1t Prankie Lymon s The Teenagers--nwhyDo Foors Fall (re6s). t8. Eiestas--'rSo Fine,' (1959). tradition. White perforners rn Love' I nf luenced by the gospel quartet and Rock and Roll t9. Carl Perklns--"pink pedal pushersil (f9Sg). t{usical influenced from the r & b west coast, Neworreans and the instrr:mental combo traditions 29. otis Blackwell--'rAll shook upr. song Blacksell wrote and oade demo tape of for Ervis presley. presley's version is an initatlon of Blacksell,s tape. Ctris recording is not tbe deno version. /l T APE 2 5 Rhvthm and Blues (Phase LL 1940s-1955 --East Coast Vocal GrouPs-- L. You See Tears In My The Delta Rhythm Boys (1930s style)--"ff that solo vocal style Relaxed, smooth and lyrical Eyes." characterized the style of Jazz singers during the 1930s; use (up front alto sax) and style; of Jazz combo instrumentation harmonized background vocals join l-ead singer during chorus between background and lead voices; no interplay section; Instruments are used only in emphasis placed on lead singer. a background accompanYing role. 2. The Ink spots (1940s) -- "Maybe" - relaxed, smooth and lyrical CIearIy enunciated of the Western tradition. vocal style background vocals simply provide harmonic Harmonized words. Pop (Tin Pan A1ley) oriented instrumental changes for song. attempts to draw the second verse, the soloist during style; slight vocal tradition, rhythmic use of more from the black voice. 3. Brothers (1943)--"Paper Do11"- VocaI style of a more MilIs nore background group is highlighted rhythmic orientation; A cross between Jazz and than that found in above examples. the Tin Pan AIIeY StYle. 4. The Ravens (1949)--"Old Man River"-development of vocal and groups (No.1-3). Emphasis is instrumental styles of earlier placed on the bass voice ( lead singer ); background voices are part of the song. the delivery style is more of an integral riff-Iike figures in accompanying more rhythmic than melodic; harmonic voices, in addition to the use of their traditional joins on chorus in unison and then in lead singer role; harrnony. 5. (L949 )--"It's Too Soon To Knowt'- see notes to No. The orioles by changing lead singers which was a 2; song is characterized (see GospeI Tape basic feature of the gospel quartet tradition standard in R&B groups. No. 13) and became 6. in the Chapel't-this song became The Orioles (1953)--"Crying tenor Note the use of the floating The Orioles biggest hit. over the melody sung by lead singer Sonny Til. The Five Keys ( 1953)--r'Close Your Eyes" - call-response lead voices and background singers. interplay of two falsettos Bass voice takes on the function of a rhythmic instrument. 8. Moonglows (1954)--"sincerely"the doo-ee doo-ee etc. and variations of the string bass line was first taken over by bass singers in 1951. At this time the Larks' "Eyesight to the Blind" and "Little Side Car" substituted the bass voice for the string bass. the Moonglows popularized this trend (while sometimes using a string bass); crying, emotional pleading tenor lead of the gospel tradition; background voices emproyed a styre of vocalLzing later known as "brow-top harmony" and imitated by the De1ls, the spinners, and other R&B and soul groups. 9. you Know r Love -you" (1951 )--"Don't The clovers bruesgroup sound; infruences derived of the btues/ Jazz combo instrumental (up front solo sax). tradition 10. Billy ward and the Dominoes (1951)--"sixty Minute Man" - piece represents a further development of the style associated with groups. The Clovers and earlier Use of blues guitar and bass; close harmonies; extensive use of gospel refrain lines; emphasis is placed on the swing beat a beat that years later was to become a dominate feature of rock 'n' roll. 11. Bi1ly ward and the Dominoes (L952)--"Have Mercy, Baby" - heavy gospel influences--call-response structures between lead and background; handclapping, shouting, wails and cries of emotionalism of sanctified churches. Marriage between blues and gosper--brues combo with up front tenor sax. see notes for No. 10. -East Coast Vocal Groups- IIPE (cont,d) 16 ll. The charms (r9s{)--"Hearts of stonen - The charns e E h e f i r s t g r o u p s t o u s e i D o o - D o o - r { a h ' s - s - i E ; " ; ; rd e rn d o n e o f a ou rhythn riff. eall-response st,ructurei repetition of certain words; use of conbo lnierrrnentarion (up f;;;i-"iil . L2' F i v e R o y a l e s , / H a n kB a l l a d a n d t h e r { i d n i g h t e r s ( 1 g 5 { ) - - ' ! , o r k wi th Me Annie" - further deveropnent of estabrished trends; gultar replaced sax. lfPt 26 (cont'd) Rhvthn and Bluer (phase IIi 1953_1959 -Southern Trends and Styles (includes weilt coast)_ Enproyed io t,he ausic oF routhern and many northern combos. 1: qing-Y Wltlerspoon (I919)--."819 Etne Girt" brues-)azz southern conbos.- 2. LowelI Pulson (1959)--"tlttle Angelr - early styte horn Iines that beeane standard in bluet-rooted Rra'. 3. Joe Houston (I95f)--nAll Night Longi - typc of horn riffs that later became standard in l959,s-50,s nia and rock,ni rorr ' i i n s t r drl n e n t a l v o c a l a r r a n g e E e n t s . T b e u g e o f v o l c e s i n t h i s eco rr og becane coutronpiacc in the nuaic of l97grs. Boogie r d o o ge b e a t . i 4. Lloyd PrlcE (I952)--"Lawdy Hisl Clawdyr - roots which provided one souree for th sustained function of horng that-became standard in blues-rooted RtB. 5. Baye Adang (r953)--'shake A Handr - gocpel-inflected vocal style that later ras uged by otbei flnare singlis. t _"-e '" ' Gorpcl lapc Ho. 1{). : 6. Ruth Broun (1953)--iTreatf R&8. 7. Faye Adrar (195{)--iHurts H o E Br t t f s and triplet roEt, 8. Lavern Baker (1955)--nTweedleeDeen srong--use of aale vocal back-up. 9. Ray Charles (I955)--"I Got a Wonani - secular version of the gospel nt{y Jetus Is Al1 the World To He"i use of godpel rhy.thnic drive and beat is the sane is gospet . -vocat le o f t h e " l5lg r; s . T h i s t r e n d e s t a b l i s b e d b y C h a r l e s ( i e c o r a i n g secular versions of religious soogs) wls later used by otier black singers and groups. - forerunner of 50,s t{y Daughter Meanr - blues rooted t{e To My Heartr - brues derived. piano style later found in rock 'n, example of a novelty Rhythnic use of voici. -2_/ lg. The Platters evolution r1. Etta Janes (1955)--"Good Rockin, Daddyn- Typical brues based R&8. Notice the use of the t,erm "boogiei- in reference to dance--this concept is not new to disco. This use of the tern tw_iEt preceded Chubby Checker and others rt,o recorded rLetrs Do th Tr{ist'r Uoogie woogie beat. (I955)--iThe Great pretenderr - Continued of the pop group sound of the l94itJ; '1, t LPe 2 7 Rhythtr and BIues (Phasa. I) I -Southern Trend and Styles- 1953-19S9(co.nt,d) (cont,.{) ll. Etta Jameg (cont'd)--nGood Rockin, Daddy" L2. Young Jessie (1955)--"Hary Louf, - Novelty song-style adapted by t h e c o a s t e r s i N e r . ro r l e a n s t r i p t e t p r a n o s t y r e found in rock 'n' roIl. 13. ThE,Cadets (1955)--"Love Banditr - see noteE to No. L2. for song. Spoken and melody 14. The Jacks (1955)--"Fine Looking wotren{ - Typical southern R&8. Nec Orleans styled piano. 15a Tbe Jacks (1955)--"r{hy Don't you |{rite r{ei - song represents -the first stage ofthe 50'r ballad sryle ae"eiofed uy aoo_ wah groups thit in following years was tnltated- and expanded upon by other groups. 16. Etta Janes (1955)--iRoIl Wlth t{e Henry' - Typlcal southern_ style R&8. Notice use of the teru "Boogie beat" song has double neaning. L7. Shirtey and L* (1956)--iLet the Good Tines Roll'One of the earliest duoa along with Gene and Eunice (I955). paved the path for eetablishnent of other such groupsi peacheE and Herb' carra and Rufuc thonas and otheis tdat ca'e into exigtence in thc 196grs and 1970rs. 18. Lavern Baker (1956)--".llu Dandyr - Typical shuf f 1e boogie conbo R&8. Ose of basa voice as in inctrunent. This . styier r! ucrl as trany of the 30ngE recordcd In r955 and earlicr, eoat.lned all 0f thc ercncnts that becade: --idcntificd rtEh rock 'n, rolI, e.g. bluer-bascdi triplet piano flgureri punctuatlng horn riffs; heavy back-beit (stEerr on bcats 2 and 4), and reference to dance. 19. Clyde tGpbrtter (1956)--"Treasure of Lovei - A typical belld of thlg period. 29. .. The Drltt (1956)--'roh l{hat A Nitei - Bass voice uged as an lnrttunanti call-response between voices; The Dells fully devcloped and eombined eletrents fron earlier vocal groupwith the conbo instrunental style. Represents the transltion from the group sound of the r940,s to 56,s to that wbic! errolved in the 1966's. R&B 4?( 2I. J a r u e sB r o u n ( t 9 5 5 ) - - i P l e a s e r . P l e a s e , p l e a s e i - e s t a b l i s h e s g o s p e t - b a g e dh i g h l y e t r o r i o n a l , ^e i " 1 9 i n e , u . e g i i ! - v o c a r s t h ee yl t h a t s e r v e d a s m a J o r s o u r c e f o ' r -b a l r a d - i i n e i i " - - i n " t f o r l orw e c and for the tradition of soul music in the l95g,s. Tripleipiano figure which was in vogue throughout the 59's. 14. B i l r D o g g e E t ( r 9 . 5 9 ) - - " H o n k y T o n k n - c o m r n o ni n s t r u n e n t a r s t y l e associated with R&8. BIues-derived; up front sax; use of Hammond rgan. o 23. Chuck Willis (f957)--"C.C. Riderr - Blues based; use of high tenale background that rater becane faehi,ona-ble; uoi."" ou., iirstrunental solo. 24. CoasterE (1957)--"Searchin'. - See notes to No. L2t novelty song --gospel vocal style. Song begina wlth chorus. .'i* 1 ? TTPE 2 8 R- .h v t h n a n d Bl u e s ( P h a s e I I ) 1 9 5 3 - I 9 5 9 ( c o n r ' d ) 25. L r o y d P r i c e ( 1 9 5 7 ) - - t r J u s t ,B e c a u g e i - T h i s s t y r e o f R & B B a r t a d b e g a n t o e v o l v e w i t h J a r n e sB r o w n ; n o t a s i n t e n s e b u t s t i I I out of the tradition. 26. San Cooke--tryou Send !{ei - Cross between a R&B (vocal inflections) and pop (role of instrutrents and melodic orientation) baIIad; croEs-over singer. 27. Jerry Butrer (1958)--nFor your precious Loven - use of broken ghords which later rePlaced the triplet piano,/guitar figure style of background vocals; stemning froro the style of East Coast vocal group tradition. See note for No. 26. 28. Clyde McPhatter (I958)--"Lovers Questionr - style'of background -ygcals stem froo th Early East Coast voeal group style; see notes for No. 26. 29. Janes Brown (r958)--'Try Mei see notes for No. zL. Broken chord fi-gures began to replace triplet figure in the gui tar,/diano. 39. Jackie WiIson (f958)--'To Be Lovei - An example of Uptown R&B (najor East Coast record cotrpaoles began to add etaborate pop oriented string and horn arrangtreotr to thc songs). Vocal style ls ln the gospel traditlon. 3I. Coasters (1958)--iYakety Yak' - Sec notes to No. L2. 32. Lloyd Price (1959)--'Stagger Lcr - BIues-gospel RsBt use of call-response lead voice alEernates uith back-up singers and gospel vocal style. instrulents; 33. Coasters (1959)--'Orarlle 3{. Lloyd Price 35. Ray Charles (1959)--il{hatrd I Sayr - Ray Charles was the firsc piano in the tradition of to Dake use of the electric popular nusic. Blueg inEtrunental Etyle; gospel vocal stylai calI-response betrreen lead volce, ingtrunents, and Use of African ousic concepts in Chis and in bacl-uP voice. uort of tbe preceeding exanples. Brosnt - SG notas Co N6.-12. (1959)--'Personelltyt - sG notes foi f,o. 32. 4 Rock 'nr 1. z. trPE 2 9 Roll (1950's) Professor Longhar (19{9) (The i B a c h o f R 9 . ! , _ n ,R o l I ) _ _ n B o o g H o o g r , e "- N e w o r l e a n s - n u s i c i a n s ie es;ul-isrrea naoy trends that becaoe an identifying -th; fiature of r kf R and nolt.---tt""uy back-beat; use of ri,a" cFnbar'lhiooetrout the songi shuff le boogie rhyihnt of sax as solo instrr.uent.r &" Joe Turner *954)--"shaker Rattre and Rorln - original J"r"ion of the song which *"" Lnlrn in the Ui"cr< cotrnunity aE R&Bi ' th es tv y n a c krl;b e l t ; h a rub en uEe of sax as, a goro t 2 - t a " r rb ii ; ; l;' u 9 9 g I " - ; ; y i ; ; ; r u ri uiti 3. " ii?iii"; ,' . : 6':"T:: : : I i i n l"l:, ; ?; : i 1?::5" 4. f. riffs. BIII Haley and the Cotretr (1954)--"Shaker Rattle and Rol1. Cover version released 5 nonths a f t e i H o . 2 . H e a v y .b a c k _ beati enphasis placed on iia. v a r i e t y o f s t y l e e - - w a l k l n . ' _ t _ t ra e a r - " y - i " f , b a s s c o n B i n e s a g b" U-o'ol-tl, etc.i use of, sax o p i v; i ; s::eha s d ne " -:-'-#ia- gill.Haley and the Conets (1.9S{)--iRockAround the Clocko - See notes to t{o..3; us9 .oio i-ngtruoent, music -o-f gultar rrade 6agazines pubrish-ed in "" 5g'; ;r rhis ' r e c o r d i n g t o b e l i r e f i r s t . n -;t;t.r e* - . o i g -;a ns i d e r e d d Birt Harey Ehe orisinaror of rhe sryte. f{har oplnion? l; i;;; Arlfur "Blg Boy. Crudup (Tbe patbcr of Rock and RoIl) (1945)__ nThatrs Arr Rig.hti J orl-gi.nar *r"io,i'-o-r this song. cross betueen brues (vocar ana ingtru'-e-n;i itvr"t and )azz (ralking basr and drr:as) style! 5. 7. . L' Elvis presrey (1954)--"That'|s At-r Righti - presley,s first recording rhicb is a cover_of No.-5. cross between brues (inflected vocat sryte) ---' tUlr" and guiEar sryle). T h i r t t y l e k n o s a a c - R o c k" . bgt-fiy . ; . r V a " i "; tfiIllc Hae rBlg l{anar Thornton (1953)--"Hound Dogr - originaf verslon of tblr song. Blues-derivca iis. e Elv-is Pre.rlcy (195c)--rHound Dog' - cover version of No. i. H e a v y b a c k - b c a t i h a n d c l a pc en ge r se n p h a s i s o n - pi nt ; ride jround a broken "f,uir _ t h!T-, ! o u t c h o r u s i b a s s :?5 triad. R' l. 9. chuck BrrEy (1955)--iHaybellinei bacri chorus-verse structure; R tn, R. 1t. - Heavy back-beat; warking guitar- solo instr,_"ii;- FatE Donino (f955)--nAin't Thar A Shamen Heavy back-beat; piano; use of a horn Eectioni distinit triplet bass. styie unrque to Domino. )' 1t. L2. Little R i c h a r d ( r 9 5 5 ) - - n T u t E i E r u t t i i - H . e a v yb a c k - b e a t ; b o o g i e blss; enphasis 9n ride cyrabal; effective use of breaks; tEiplet piano; hornE. chorus-verEe; sax soro; gospel vocal ' . style; R 'n' R. Bo Diddley (I955)--"Bo Diddley" - blues-derived R ,n, R. R ock iti3t i .t ( co r,d ) n _ 13. tittle Richard (r9sG)--nLong Tarr sarryn - see noteE co No. rr. Original vergion of song. 14. J e r r y L e e L e w i s ( N . D . ) - - , f L o n gT a l l s a I I y ' cover of No. 13. See notes to No. Il. Guitar replaces solo sax. 15. C h u c h B e r r y ( 1 9 5 5 ) - - " R o l l O v e r B e e t h o v e n , ,See notes t N lr. G u i t a r r e p r a c e s s a x . N o r i d e c l m b a r . g o o g i e b o s s .o . a t 6 - S a t E D o n i n o ( 1 9 5 6 )- - " B r u e b e r r y . 17. Fats Domino (1957)--"I'n 18. Little Richard--rLucillen Hillr - s e e n o t , e E t o N o. Lg. t{alkingr - $ee notas to No. Ig. - See notes to No. lt. 1 9 . _ C h u c kB e r r y ( 1 9 5 8 ) - - " J o h n n y B . G o o d e i - S e e n o t e s to No. 15. 29. --tittte Rtcbard (r959)--'Good Golly, t{iss t{orry" - iee noEes Eo No. lI. Guitar doubleE boogie bass; no hoins. - I APE 3 OA Cover Y-erltoqg of Black t{usic fgZ'?EfT5tdr (T -CEgmr I. F a t s D o D i n o ( f 9 5 5 ) ( D o n i n o , / B a r t h o l o u e w-)- n A i o ' t 2. P a t B o o n e ( 1 9 5 5 )- - " I b i d " 3. Lloyd Price 4. Pat Boone (n.d. )--"Ibid, (I958) price,/Hilogan)--"Stagger (t. 5 . - - .S t i c k t { c G b e e ( 1 9 { 9 ) ( S t i c k l { c G h e e-)- " D r i n k i n r 6. 8. -- Little chuck Berry wtne Spo-Deeon Jerry Lewis (n.d.)--"Ibid" 9. Leen Jerry Lewis (n.O.)--'rIbid't 7. : That A ShameF Richard (1956) (tittle Rlchard)--rLong TaIl (1956) (Chuck Berry)--rRoll SalIy" Over Beaihoveni' lg. Jerry f.ewis' (n.d. )--'rIbid" It. Arthut Crudup (f945) (Arthur Crudup)--ithatrs (PresIey's first hit) L2. Elvts Presley (f955)--.Ibi{r 13. Big t{ana Thornton (f 95{) I4. Elvis I5. Wynonie Harris 16. Elvis.Prcsley !7.- Interview! ulth the staff, of Sun Reeorda, Frbrley's.first Reeord label. Tlris cotrpany, which rccorded BIack blues men, r e c o r d e d C r u d u p r s i T h a t r s A l l R i g h t , i c h i c h b e e a r n eP r e s l e y ' s first h1t. 18. Joe Turnor (I951) 19. BiIl Presley llalcy Atl Right" (J. Leiber - l{. Stoller) --iHounddogn ( f 9 5 5 )- - ' r l b i d i (I947I (l{YnonieHarris)--"Good nockin, Tonightn (I951)--"Ibid' - - (charles E. Calhoun)--"Shake, RattIe, -: Rolt,, (n.d.)--"Ibid" /7 ' t rPl 3 gB C O V E R So n t i n u e d ( 1 9 6 8 s ) c CoverE Of t{otownHits, ReB, BlueE g Soul_$1 British - Zg. Barret 2L. Beatles 22. The Miracles On Men 23. Beatles 24- The Marvelettes PoEtnann 25. Beatles Groups S t r o n g ( 1 9 5 9 ) ( B e r r y - G o r d y - B r a d f o r . d )- - , ' M o n - e y ' (I964)--nIbid" (r952) (suokey Robinson)--tryou RealIy Got A Hold ( 1 9 5 4 )- - " I b i d " (1961) (Horland-Dozier-Holland)--rplease Hr. (I96{) --"Ibid" 2 6 . - . , L-i - t l e R i c h a r d ( 1 9 5 5 ) ( J o h n s o n - t l t t l e t Talf SallY' 2 7. Beatles 28. Chuck Berry (1955) (Chuck Berry)--iRoIl 29.. Beatles 39. Ike & Tina Turner (Ike turner)--r5 31. Crean (n.d. )--iIbid" 32. Rlcbard-BIackwelI)--nLong Llttle 33. Over Beethoveni ( I 9 6 4) - - " I b i d " Long yeau" (1958) (L. Richard)--rGood Golly Miss t{olly" .Richard Creedence Clearwater Revlval (Eric Claopton) --'rIbid" 34. Ike e llna 35. (t954)--"Ibid" Turncr (Ike lurnar)--tproud Creedence Clearyrtar trlaryr Revival--.Ibidi COITEBS P THE ME"I{PHISOOND I BRITISH GROUPS O B 35. SaE &Dave (f967) (Isaac Hayes-David porter)--"When Soaething Is t{roq. u tth t Qr B abyr 37. Joe Cochcr--ilbidi 38-. Otis Redding (f965) (O. Redding &JerEy Butler)--nI've ' Loving You loo Long 39. Joe Cocker--nlbidrl 49. sam & Dave (1967) (Isaac Hayes-David porter) --'soul 41. Ton Jones--"Ibid" Been Hann T APB 3 rc Covers continued (t970s) 42. t{arvin Gaye (Motown) (1964) (HoIland-Dozier-HoIland)_-trHow Sweet It Is (To Be Loved By you) ,13. JamesTaylor ( f 9 7 5 )- - " I b i d " 44. DrifEers 45. Janes Taylor {5. snokey Roblnson (1965) (s. RobinEon)--"ooh ooh Baby" 4 7' Linda Ronstadt ' (r979)--"rbid" (1962) (Goffin-King)--"Up On The Roofn (1979)--"Ibid|l ,18. Dori.s ?roy (1963)--nJust one Lookn 49. 59. The Eour Topr (196 ) Shadowr of Lovei - 51. Rod Sterart - L i n d a R o n s t a d t ( 1 9 7 9 )- - " r b i d . (Holland-Dozier-HolIand)--rstanding _ - -_ _. In The (1978)--"Ibidr B L A C KS T Y L E I I { I T A T I O N S B Y A H E R I C A N H I T E & B R I T I S H I { U S I C I A N S W (I970s r 1980r) 1. Average l{hite Band (I974)--"pick instrunental style 2. Bee Gees (f977)--rStayln, AIivei - Ose of the falsetto voice that eharacterizer. the black oale vocal style. 'Petgf Brorn (L977)--nDo You t{anna Get Funk With He?" Funk style. 1. 0p The plecasi - Janes Bror,rn -4i : :BlOgdie (f 989)--'.Ra-pture" Iottation by the Sugarblll Gang in 1929. 5. of tbe-Rap rrtyle.created-. The Evaslons (f9BI)--"Winka Wrap" - Initation of the funk style usiog a uclody of Black funk hits which ara coobined with rhc-Jl|9 s ryle ... . -: IAPE 3 1 : OptownRsB (lgSg_1963) The Teen Queens (1955)--nEddie Hy Loven The Teen Queens appear to have been the first successful uptown fenare group. l.telody is sung in harruony; t"iitocuses on t""n_"g. ro'ance; structured horn arrangemene. tne styi.-oe-iii" gignificant 9roup is in that tliey op"n"i the popularity of feroale vocal gioop".'-- doors which led Eo ReB In Transition , I. .2. The Chantels (1959) (R. Barret)--"Mayber The chantels established a group style and expanded _that 'r.i-initateo - .-- u p o n b y t a r e r f e o a l a v o c a r g r o u p n - - ; ; ; ; ; " i s on rai:i;lngeri b a c k - u p g r o u p s i n g s v o c a b l e s ( o o r r ga n d abs); at ;i song , .!!:v respond eo the lead's "uaytei.-"r.ito"r rhe";d --i""n"g" me tro'ance. Tripret piano was chiracteristic or-,an! rilg,s bal lads. 3. the Chantels (1958) (Davis-Levy)--"I to No. 2. 4. cryde Hcphatter (r959) (wilrians-Benton)--iA Lovcr,s euestionn relaredr'nelodlc, laved-back vocar styre oixed with the use of gospel vocal infiections. 5. LaVern Baker (1958) (A.Julia-F.Jay)--.I Cried A Tear, _ See notes to No. {. Tenor car uged a3 a reaponding and soro ingtrunent. sar ic played in a iyricar rathcr tban a 'honkingi styre assoiiaied rith blues bands. "6"1" Thc Plattars (r958) (o.Harbacb-J.Kern)--"suoke Gets rn your Eyesi - sce notes to No.r. Ore of string and oecasional ucc of background voices. "ii"ng"rent 6. Love you So. - See notes 7. The platrers (1958) (8. Ran-A. Nevi,ns-t{. Navins-A. D u n n )- , : "Tyillght tincr - Sbc nota, to Uo. 5. Tertual thene is of a fantasized nature. 8. Jerry Butler and the Inpresrlons (I95g)-_ipor your preeious L o v e i - . S a en o t a t o H o . { . piano_broken "troia", Franiggg! (1959)--rr onry Have Eyes For you' Reraxed, nolodlc, raycd-back vocal styie crogsed uith elements of the goe1.*r and jazz vocal traditions. solo vocal c o r y t l n t n t c d b y b a c k - u p g r o u p . T t r i p l e t p i i n o . - - 'i v i " " '9' Lg. Drif,tars (1959) (G. Treadwerl-B. NErson-L. patterson)--nrhere vocal style; background nakei use of voiabies and responds to the lyrics of lead singer. lI. Shirelles (1959) (King-Goffin)--nwiIi See notes to No. lg. you Love He Tomorrow. 4' IAPE 3 2 Uptown R&B (I959-1963 cont.) L2. Drifters (1960)--nsave The Last Dance For Men - see notes .o No. Ig. I3. t{aurice will_i,ans (196g) willians)--;,stay6 - cha_cha beat. G o s p e r - i n f l e c t e d v o c a_ ( Mt.y r e . rs uEe of faisetto. Background punctuates phrase endings-of lead singer;------ l{ . B e n E . K i n g ( 1 9 6 f) ( B . K i n g - E . G l i c k ) - - ' S t a n d B.y l . t e , - C h a _ c h a beat. Ose of strings; gospel vocal style. 15. Bobbettes (1969) (The Bobbettes)--nr shot !{r. Lee' - Gosper vocal gtylei call-responsei style that later characterized Motown's first fenale vocal griop. 15. Shiraltes (f961) (Dixon;Denson)--i!{ana said" - Cha-cha beat; call-responre. 17. (f96I) (pauling-Bass)--"Dedicated To The Shirellar One.I Loven Typical RcB female group ballad of t,he tlne. 18. Gladys Knight and the pips (f96fy--iEvery Typical ReB styted ballad of the tinel 19' crystars 29. Gene Chandler (I952)--nDuke of EarIn - Modified cha-cha bear. 21. Ben E. King. (1962) (Nugetre)--nDon,t play That Song" _ Cha_cha beatitlPical uptown R&Bstring arrangetrent and vocal style. 22. Ben E. King (1963) (l{ogol-c. Donida-Leiber-stoller)--nr who Have Nothing' - Tlpical 0ptown R&Bvocar and instruBentar style 23. B a r b a r a L e r i s ( f 9 6 3 ) ( B . L e w i s - t { c L a u g h l i n )- - " H e I I o S t r a n g e i r ' Tlpical cba-cha beat; balrad for the uptown R&B styie. Notice style of background vocals. 2 4. The Drittrn 25- s h a n g r i - L a e ( 1 9 6 1 ) - - n R e m e n b e rw a l k i n r n T h e . s a n d F - T h e Shangri-Las rere another female group that were successful i n t h e 1 9 6 0 rE . Beat Of My Heart,r (1982)--'He'E A Reber" - cha-cha beat. o^\r.. 1.,,-: ( 1 9 6 3 ) ( C . t { ei I - B . t { a n n - J e r r y L e i b e r _ H i k e - The Drifters ,rere rhe f irst Uprown :!91,1?q-'On Broadway" R&B'tf!of' to connent on the social reality of blacks living in nittlicrn clties. such theoes becane coonon in songs durlna"thc cra of soul which began in 1964. T APE 3 24 and the (1959, l-. Hank Ballard Twist. tl 2. Chubby Checker (l-960, Cameo) 3. Phil Phillips--(1959) rrSeaof Love.rl 4. Dion and the Belmonts--(1958, ttI Wonder Why.rr 5. Dion and the Belmonts--(1959, Shuman) ttA Teenager in 6. Frankie 7. Frankie Valli B. Dion and the Belmonts-- ( 1962) trLovers Who Wander. tt 9. Little Eva--(7962, Motion. tt 10. Carole King--(L962) Until September.rr 11. The Chiffons--(1963, Finerr. L2. T h e A n g e l s - - ( 1 9 6 3 , S m a s hR e c . ) ( F e l d m a n / G o l d s t e i n / G o t t e n h r e r ) -ttMy Boyfriend's Back. tl 13. The Dixie Cups-- (1964, Red Spector ) --Chapel of Love. I' L4. The Shangri-Las--(1964, Red Bird Rec.) (George Morton/Jeff Barry/Ellie Greenwich)--rrleader of the Pack" 15. Betty Everett--(1964, Vee-Jay Rec.) Song It's in His Kiss) (Clark)--"The Shoop Shoop 16 . The A-b Libs ( 1965, Red Bird from New York City" ( Taylor/Davis ) --"The L7. T h e C r e s t s - - ( 1 9 5 8 , C o e d )- - t t 1 6 C a n d l e s r t Midnighters King "The Twist." (George Khoury and ehilip Avalon--Bobby Rec.)--"The Laurie Rec.) Laurie Baptiste)-- (Anderson, t{eeks) (D. Rec. ) Pomus, M. Sox To Stockings and the Four Seasons--(l-952O (Gaudio)--r'sherryf' ( E. Dimension Rec.) I'laresca, Rec.) Bird Rec. ) DiMucci ) -- (Goffin/King)--"The (coffin/King)--"It Laurie D. Might (Ronnie Rec. ) as Loco- WeII Rain Mack)--ilHe's So (BarrylGreenwic.}lr/ Boy T APE 3 2A and the 1. Hank BaIIard Twist. tl 2. Chubby Checker (1960, Cameo) 3. PhiI Phillips--(1959) rrSea of Love. rl 4. Dion and the Belmonts--(1958, trI Wonder Why.rl 5. Dion and the Belmonts--(1959, Shuman) ttA Teenager in Love.rl 6. Frankie 7. Frankie VaIli B. Dion and the Belmonts--(1962) trLovers Who Wander. rl 9. Little Eva--(1962, Motion. rl 10. Carole King--(1962) Until September. fr 11. The Chif fons--(1963, (1959, Midnighters King "The Twist." (George Khoury and Philip Avalon--Bobby Rec.)--"The Laurie (Anderson, Weeks) Rec.) Laurie Baptiste)-- (D. Rec. ) Pomus, M. Sox To Stockings (Gaudio)--"Sherryf' and the Four Seasons--(I9620 (E. Dimension Rec.) Maresea, Rec. ) DiMucci)-- (Goffin/King)--"The (coffin/King)--"It Laurie D. Might. as (Ronnie WeI] LocoRain So Mack)--rrHe's Finett. L2. 13. The Dixie Cups-- (7964, Red Spector ) --Chape1 of Love. rl L4. (George The Shangri-Las--(1964, Red Bird Rec.) Barry/E1lie Greenwich)--rrl.eader of the Packt' 15. Betty Everett--(1964, Yee-Jay Song lt's in His Kiss) Rec.) 16. (1965, The Ab Libs from New York Cityil Rec. ) l-7. The Crests--(1958, - The AngeIs-- ( 1963 , Smash Rec. ) ( Feldman/Goldstein/Gottenhrer) -ttMy Boyf riend's Back. 'l Red Bird Coed)--"16 Bird Rec. ) (Barry/Greenwich/ (C1ark)--"The Morton/Jeff Shoop Shoop (Taylor/Davis)--"The Candlesfr Boy Side 18. Dee CIark--(1959, ttHey Little Gir1. Vee-Jay II (8. Rec.) Stevenson/O. Blackwell)-- " La Fiestas--(1959, 20 . ( l-959 ) Washington-Dinah Dif f 'rence a Day Makes . ff 2L . DelIa Reese-- ( f 959 , RCA Rec. ) ( Bobby Worth) --frDon't rrl,a Bohemett). (adapted from a tune in Puccini's 22. Jackie Wilson--(1959, Brunswick . Carlo ) --'rThat's Why ( I Love /T Rec.) (B. Gordy/G. You So ) . t' 23. Jackie Wilson--(1958, Teardrops ) Rec.) 24 . Jackie Wilson-- Town Rec.) (Johnny L9. ( 1958, (Maria Brunswick Brunswick Otis)--"So Grever/S. Rec. ) Fine.'l Adams ) --t'What a You Knowrl Gordy (same as above) rrTo Be Lovedrl "Lonely T APE 3 3 l{otosn 1959-1963 (PhaEe I of Developoent) ) r eriters I r. Barret,t strong (r959) (B. strong)--"Money (That's t{haE I want),' T y p i c a l R S Bs t y l e ; u s e o f t a n b o u r i n e i n a l e l e a d a n d f e o a l e back-upi traidic bassline. Gospel style and structure. 2. Snokey Robinson and the Hiracles (f969) (Gordy,/Robinson)-No tatrbourineE. Up"Shop Aroundi - See notes t,o No. I. front sax. 3. The Harveletts (f96f) (8. Holland-R. Bateoan-F. Gortran-N. Garrett-G. Dobbins)--iPIeasa l{r. Poattrani - Cross between R&B and R'n'R. Gospel influences in the vocal style and in the form and structurc. -{. Suokey Robinson and thc l{lraclcr (I962) (f. Robin-eoni--'You - R&Buce of horns and triple piano -ReaIIy Got A Hold On l{er figures, 5. S t a v l e W o n d e r ( 1 9 5 3 ) ( H . C o s b y { . P a u I )- - F F i n g e r T i p s " - R & B style; gospel voeal style and structurei heavy back-beat. Notice audience response 6. t{artha Reeves and Ene Vandcllas (f963) (8. Holland-B. HoIlandL. oozler)--"Love Is Llka A Heattravo' - Beginning use of the 't{otornr gound--a-four_elements that later ideotlfied beat drum pattern sltb back-bcatsi Eanbourinri handclaP; gospel use of voices, hoEns. 1. t{arvin Gaye (t953) (8. Holland-L. Dozier-B. Holland)--"Can I Get A l{ltnesc" - Crocr between gospcl and bluesi shouting -r _ . s t y l e o f g o r p c l ; i n t a r p l a y b a t w e e n v o l c e a a o d b o- n s . R & B oriantatioo. llotosrn t95{-I957 (PhacEII of DeveloPoent) 8. t{ary lfellr (I961) (w. Roblnaoo) -rt{y Guy' - Handclapping; strctrrd bats 2 and {; use of organi lead singer is halfway grcp and gospel; gospel us of background voices. C r o r t b c t r e e n . R & Ba n d t b e " H o t o w n s o u n d r . 9. !!q Supreloes (19541 (8. Holland-B. Holland-L. Dozier)--'where Did Our Love Goi - "The !{otown Soundr four-beat rhythmic patteEn (piano and drums); uP-flont sari lead is halfway betweee pop and gocpeli gospel use of background voices. a, t rPE 3 { l{otown 195{-1987 (phas-TfTt-6@inc1 ( cont i d ) Lg. The Suprenes (f964)--"Where II. t'{artha Reeves and the Vandellag (19G4) (I. Hunter_W. Stevenson_ l{. Gaye)--nDancing rn The street" - Heavy back-bea!; hornsi gospel vocal style: R&B orientation. L2. Tha ?enptations (I965) (W. Robinson-R. Whlte)--nHy Girln - Use res _ O f r h y t h n g u i t a lra y t o - s ta c k is b e a t s 2 . a n d 4 ; u s e o f s t r i n g s a n d i ed b vocal gtyre. - .horns; gospel Ttre "uotown-sound". 13. J_r. t{aIker and Ehe All stars (1955) (A. Dewalt)--"shoEgun,,_ , Pure R&Bi heavy back-beati Iots of rhythnic'drivl; organ; up front sax. r4. T!._suprenes (r965) (8. Holland-L. Dozier-B. Holland)--istopr In The Nane of Lovei - lhc "Motown soundi--four-beat drun -.Patterni lead ig halfway batween pop and gospel; go"p.i-o". of background voiceci horns. 15. The Bour Topa (f955) (E. HoLland-L. Dozier-B. HoIIand)--nI can't Help r{userfi - The rt{otorn sound"--guitar and tambourine stress on beats 2 and 4; horn ind string sectionsi up-front sari heavy influeoce of gospel in the vocal stylc. r5. Martha Reeves and the vandellag (r966) (s. t{oy-t{. stevenson-I. Hunter)--'t{y Baby Love Her - crosa between the "!{otoun soundi and R&8. stress on bcat 2 by snara and gui tar; use of strings and hornsi gocpcl vocal ityte . Did Our Love Gon (cont'd) 17. The Tenptatlonc (1965) (N.I{bitf ield-B. Holland)--nAin,t Too ' -: Proud to Begi - see notes to [o. 15. No horn or string section. 18. The supretres (r966) (E. Holland-L. Dozier-B. Horland)--nyou canrt Hurry Lover - The 'Hotown soundr--guitar, srnare, and tanbourinc strest bcatc 2 and ,t; lead is halfway between pop and gorpel; gorpel use of background voices. 19. The Four lopa (r965) (8. Holland-L. Dozier-B. Holtand)--trReach O U Cl r 1 1 B e T h e r e i - T h e " H o t o s n S o u n d . - - f o u r - b e a t d r u n patterni tambourinei enotional gospel voeal styIe. 4/4 I APE 3 5 (Phase II) HotownCont,d 2q. M a r v _ i ng " y e a n d T a m m i T e r r e l r ( 1 9 6 7 ) ( N . A s h f o r d - v . s i n p s o n ) - 'Ainrt No Mountain H i g h E n o u g h n- M o t o w n ' s f i r s t d u e i ; u h e ' r M o t o n nS o u n d n ; tanbourine siress beats 2 and 4; gospel vocal stylei string section. 2L- steve wonder (1967) (s. wonder-H. cosby-L. Hardaway-s. Moy)-r was t{ade To Love Hern - nr{ot,own oundn four-biat drun s Patterni tarnbourine; gospel vocal style 22. Gladys Knight and the pipe (r967) (N. lthitfield-B. strong)-'r Heard rt rhrough rhe Grapevinen - lrotown's first recording of a "gospel-R&B-sour" recording; transition fron the 'rr{otosn soundi to a oore diversilied soundi upfront sax; shouting, euotional gospel vocal style. Heivy b a c k - b e at . l{otorln 1968-present (Phase III of Developaent) 23. T h e T e n p t a t i o n s ( 1 9 6 8 ) ( N . W h i t f i e l d - B . S t r o n g )- - " C l o u d N i n e , ' This recording represents the first of uany Eongs that are conpretely void of eleuents that once idencified the nHotown Sound". The lyric theae of, ghetto reality. is cotobined uith a conteoporary Busical style resulting fron Ehe use of, electronic devices; gorpel vocal styIe. 24. Jr. z). ( 1 9 6 9 ) ( H . G a y e - A . G a y e )- - n B a b y , I ' t r F o r R e a I , l The Originais Soul ballad; goapel vocal style; changing leads. 26. Jackson Eive (f959) (lhe Corporation)--r1 Soul. 27. The Teoptations (1959) (N. Whitfield-B. Shackr - Souli see notes to No. 23. 28. Stevie Fonder (L972) (S. Wonder)--isuperstition" t{alker and the Al1 stars (1969) (J. Bristol-H. Fuqua-v. Bullock)--nwhat Does rt rake To Wia your Loven - cross between the nHotown Soundi and R&B and Soul. -Want ycju Backi Strong)--npsychedelic .-4 - Soul. 4 I APE 3 6 R h v t h u ee B l u e s . The t{enphis (Stax-VoIt) Sound/?he Atlantic (Memphis,/MuscIe Shoals, (phase I l. (cont,d) Sound I959_I975 llabana ) IgEg-t9GG) CarIa Thoraas (19601 (C. Thonas)--trGee Whiztr - Stax,s first recording wlric! HaE patterned after Ehe optorn con""pt hit of '-- RrB; conrrorred sound and use of siring reen ballad lyrics. ( r e n i : e d a n d i . s s u J b y A"t;l ; ; n;t"i ; ! n .Ri e c o r d s ) , a; c " 2' Booker l- and the r{.G.'!s (1962) (Booker T. and the r{.G.,s)-n G r e e no n i o n s i . This group'is'coujoged of the resident nusicians at star studioE. REBblues based instrumentar. Ride cynbal on all { beatsi snare on bertr 2 and 4. 3. Rufus ThonaE (f953) (R. Thonas)--rgalking the Dogn _ This recording rePresents tha tnitial pbasi of thei"t"bii-"hmenr 6f the t'tenphis sound--blues initr-unental stylei blues-gosper vocal ttylci thc_ttyre of thc hoEn section,'"oi i o f t h e b a r i - E a r l a t e r b e c a n e a i d c n t i f y i n f ' " i " r . i t i f " o " on e n c e f the 'l{enphis soundi. The horn sectlon Has-cailea the "Menplris Hornstr. Blues derived lyrics. overarl, song ig-a crosE betueen R&g and the energing l{rophis Sound. 4. t{ilson Pickett (1964) (W. pickett-D. Covay)--'rI,E Gonna Cry, Blues-derived; ugc of Optorn RtB concepta; fenale back--up. Gospcl vocal style. (Atlantic) 5' Carla Thouas (f961) (l{. Parker-S. Croppcr) Star staff rI,ve Got No Tine To Lose' - Bluer-drrived nia hllad; gospel vocal style; alEhough back-up voices are used, they-ari not as .. protrinent'ar thorr hoard in eraupre No. f. ihe uEe of baik'upringorrul.IIfortbetrottparc,disappearwhentbe l{enphis sound lr frif ly eltablishad. 5. Don_Convay(f 96t) (D. Convay-R- t{iIIer) --nt{ercyl Mercy' Typical it{eupbir sound' balrad without tbe use of a horn sectioo. A secood uala volce (duet sound) regrlaced fenale bacb-3q f lngcrl. 7. Joe lct$itl96a)' (J. Tex)--trHold t{hat you,ve Goti - The inrruan!-"}_it{gnphls sound. for balrads. The gosper vocal stylc in 1955 wiLr becoue ruore enotional and inlense. 8. otiE Redding (f965) (o. Redding-S. Cropper)--nMr. piriful" The developed rt{emphis sound"--inEtrunentar and vocal styre; horns play riffsr punctuate phrases of the vocalists and provide transitions from on section of Ehe song to another. 9. Wilson Pickett (f965) (W. pickert-S. Hourn - See notes to No. 8. Cropper)--nIn The r{idnight 45 Phase II tfpB 3O (Conr,d) ( 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 6 8 ) T h e r . t e n p h i ES o u n d Lq. WiIson Pickett (f955) (C. Kenner and Fats Domino)--,Land of L 6 6 Q D a n c s t r- T h e n M e m p h i s S o u n d " _ _ a g o s p e l , p r e a c h i n g s t y l e w h i c h n o t i v a t e s a u d i e n c e .r e s p o n s e i g o s p e r s h o u t i i g vocal word,/phrase repetitions; rorE ii:terjections; : ac l b_ q .k . ib e a t ; u s e o f r i d ! c y u b a l ; p u n c t u a t i n ! ' h o r n s . !""uy Gospel use of organ. lI. S 'a u , a n d D a v e ( 1 9 5 6 ) ( I . H a y e s - D . p o r t e r ) - - n y o u I Knowi - See notes to llo . Lg. tAPt 3 7 The l{esphis,/Atlantic sound phase rr Don't Kno!, Like (r966-69) contld _ L2. otis Redding (1966) (J. canpbell,-H. I{oodg-R. conndrry)---'trt''a Little lendcrnesgi - soul barlad. Se notes to No. r0. 13. Carla Thoroas (1955) (D. portor-I. to No. lg. 14. San and Dave (1966) (I. Hayes-D. Porter)--rHold see notet to No. lg. 15. carla Thonas (1955) (!{. t{organfield . t{uddy waters)--'r Got My l{ojo l{orkiog' - se notes to No. lg. Soul version of bluei song. 15. Carla Thonas (f965) (e. porter-I. Hayes)--nLet t{e Be Good To Youtr - SouI ballad, see notcs to No. lg. L7- f?n and Davc (1957) (r. Hayee-D. poEter)--ri{hen sonething- rs wrong l{lth l{r Babyr - sec noter to No. Ig. l 18. Arthur Conley (1967) (A. Conley)--nSwee! Soul t{usic" - See noter to Bo 19. Notice use of, the tern soul. 19. Booker $ rad lhr !t.G.'E (1967) (Booker T.-r{.c.'g)--.Hip HetF-q-,?!c rl{cnphiE Sound"--instrumental. d;rt' Hayes)--'B-A-B-yi - See notes On I'o Coming,. Hug r- 29. Otis Rdlag a n d C a r I a T h o o a s ( I 9 5 7 ) ( L . F u l s o r a - J .r { c C r a c k l i n ) "Tranpr - See notes to No. tg. 2L. B a r - K a y s ( 1 9 5 7 )- - i S o u l F i n g e r i - T h e " t { e m p h i s S o u n d , r - instruEental. Notice use of the terD sogl. qi p baser ( 1e65-6sr r r n.lllili?" s ound cont,d) ( 22. Bar-Kays--nSouI Bingerr - 23. W i I s o n P i c k e t t ( 1 9 5 7 ) ( L ; C h r i s t i a n ) - - n F u n k y B r o a d w a y , ,See notes to No. lg. (Atlantic) 24. K i n g C u r t i s ( 1 9 6 7 ) ( K . C u r t i - s -- - " I { e n p h i s S o u l ) Stew' - ,,Hemphis Sound"--instrumental ; self-explanLtory. 25- sara and Dave (r967) (I. Hayes-D. porter)--isour Mann - see notes to No. Ig. Noticl use of th tertr .soulr. 26' Joe Tex (1?6?) (J- Ter;--"5krnny song. (Atlantic) 27. wilson Pickett (19Gz) (8. t{onack-K. curtis)--"r,n The i!{enphis Soundr ballad. (Atlantlc) 28. Arthur Conley- (f96g1--iFunky Sgreetn - The .HeophI* Soundr in irs iniritl stage of erpanding and beconing Eivarsieiea in styleAddition of fenale singers. (lttaitic) 29. The staple singers backr approacb. 39. Otis Reddlng {f9CB) (O. Redding-S. Cropper)--itSittin, Docktr ilayed back" approach. (cont'd). Legs and Arli - Hernphis 'rap' rn Loven (r958) (R. stagles)--"He's AIright" _ ,layed on) The Phase I II TAPE38 (Cont,d) f 9 6 9 - i 9 7 5 T h e ! { e n p h i s' S o u n d 3I. Isaac HayeE (f959) (8. Bacharach)--"walk On By" - The individual pleading layed-back style of Hayes. Use of an orchestral arrangenent Eo eEtablish the nood for his style of delivery. 32. Isaac Hayes (1959) (J. Webb)--"By the Time I Get ro phoenix" Hayes popularized the concept of the "rapr that becane comnon-place in the 1970rs. See noteE for No. 31. IAPE 3 9 Menphi s l o q n d P h a E e I I I 33. (contrd) King FIoyd (L979) (K. Floyd)--"Groove t{e' style (AtIantic) 3tl. 'Igaac Hayes (1979) (J. ButIer-tf. see notes to No. 31. Bulter)--"I Individualized Stand Aecugedi - 35. The Beginning of tbe End (f97I1 (R. t{unnings & T. Fitzgerald) nFunky Nassau (Part I)" - Influenca of rhythos and flavor of Nassau into SouI. Conpare tbis song utth he popular nousic (Atlantic) traditlon of West Africa. 35. Wilson Pickett (197I) (W. ?ictse.t-8. Shapiro)--iDonrE Knock My Lovn - The nSoul Sound' of the l979rs. Tbe vocal style of (Atlantic) t{enphis and the inctruaental style of goul. 37. Betty wright (C. Reid-W. Clarkr)--"Clein (Atlantic) to No, 36. 38. Igaac Hayes (f97I) (C. Davlc)--iNever notea to No. 3I. 39. S t a p l Si n g e r s ( 1 9 7 1 ) ( ! { . R l c e - L . I n g r a n ) - - " R e s p e c t Y o u r e e l f ' r Typical lyrlc theoc associated witb 'Soul f{usic". Personalized gorpel based style of the Stagle Singers. 49. WilEon Plckctt (f97I) (H. Pickett-8. Shapiro)--'Don't Lovc} - Part I - The iSoul Sound' (Atlantic) 4I. Al.bert f,iog (1973) (C. Sroth) --'I W a n n aG e t P u n k y n - G o s p e l i bluag-aoul (ftesphis Synthesis) . Up l{onan" - Se notes Can Say Goodbye"- See Knock Hy u ->u T ape 3 9A -The Roots of SouI1. tl t ve Got A Womann GosPel inflected version of a gospel vocal style-secular song. Ray Charles ( r 9 5 4) (R. Charles R. Richard) 2. rrPlease, Please, Pleaset' - Gospel vocal beggitg, style Pleading deliverY word and Phrase rePetition; style; piano; caII-resPonse; triplet PresouI. James Brown (19s6) (J. Brown J. Terry) (R. Charles) See notes to No. 2. "Whattd I Saytt R. Charles pioneered the use of electric piano in popular music; pre-soul. 4. James Brown 'Think" - 5. Ray Charles ttSticks and Stonesrr (r960) ( T . T u r n e r) 3. James Brown nBewilderedn 3. 5. Ray Charles (r95e) (re6r) (whitcup-PoweIl 7. pre-soul. (195s ) see notes see notes to to No- No. 2. ) Ray Charles rrHit the Road Jack" (1e6r) (P. tlayf ield ) -The Soul Era- 8. Impressions (r964) (c. 9. Mayfield) Impresssions (r96s) (Curtis Lg. Mayfield) James Brown (re6s ) nKeep on Pushing" Textual theme that in their encouraged blacks to believe to win the struggle own abilities the concept against inequality--promotes pride and self-awareness. of black 'rPeople Get Readytr See notes to No. 8; in the Powers reference to oners beliefs Jesus Christ. of [Papars Got A Brand New Bag" Up-tempo style. soul vocal and instrumental l ape 3 9B The SouI Era (cont'd) 11, G e n e C h a n d l e r ( 1 9 6 5 )- - , , R a i n b o w G 5 " - A t y p i c a l See notes to No. Z. L2. Jameg BEown (1966) (J. Brown-N. Jones)--'Don't Be A Drop-Out,, Message song - encourage youth to stay in schoor. t3. Inpressions (1957) (C. t{ayfield) --'We're A Winnern - s notes to Ho. 8. 14. Aret-ha Pranklin (f 967) (Ronny Shannon)--nI Never Loved A Man, soul ballad. / A tlpical . 15. soul ballad. Aretha Frailklln (f967) (Otis Redding)--"Respect. - VocaI and instrr:^oental style contron to soul. - 16. .;.-;fl!f9 gfilson (I967) (Snlth-Jackson-t{lnor)--'r(your Love Keeps Lifting l{e) Higher and Higher" - Rhythns and vocal stylei a E s o c i , a t , e dw i t h s o u l . L7- Janes Bronn (1958) (.f. Brown)--"Say It -Loudi - Textual focuses on concept of "bIack pride.' 18. I n p g e s r i o n r ( 1 9 6 e 1 ( C . t { a y f i e l d ) - - . T h i s I t H y C o u n t E y . - S o ci a l conEentary expressing the feelings of blacks regarding Arnerca. i 19. Archie Betl and the Drells "Tighten Upn - Soul 29- Aretha Pranklin 21.. rrrey- Brothers (1969) (R. rsley-o. Thingr - Soul (r959) (8. Buttier-A. (1968)--"slnce Bel.l)-- yourve Been Gone" - sour rsrey-R. rsley)--,rrt,g your -. .. /) l agn 3 98 The SouI Era (cont'd) Il. Gene Chandler (1965)--,,Rainbon 65,, - A typical See notes to No. Z. L2. JameE BEown (f 966) (J. Brown-N. Jones)--nDon'! Be A Drop-Out,, Message song - encourage youeb to Etay in schoor. 13. Inpressions to No.8. 14. Aret-ha Pranklin (1967) (Ronny Shannon)--rI Never Loved A Man' lA typical Eoul ballad. . 15. soul ballad. (1967) (C. t{ayfietd) --n!{erre A Winnern - s not,es A r e t h a F r a n k l i n ( I 9 5 7 ) ( o t i s R e d d i n g )- - , , R e s p e c t r - v o c a l a n d instru^oental style conDon Eo soul. I9. - ..Jfl!|9 wilson (1967) (Soith-JackEon-t{inor)--'r(your Love Keeps Llfting r{?) Higher and Higher" - Rhythns and vocal associated sith soul. "tyi.iL7. Janes Brown (r958) (J. Brown)--'say rt,Loudi on concept of "black pride." 18. Inpreseiono (f 9GB) (C. t{ay!iald) --rthis I! Hy CountEy' - Social conEentary expressing the feelings of blacks regarding Aoer ica. 19. Archie BelI and rh Drells "Tighten Opn - Soul zlt. Aretha Pranklin (1968)--"Since yourve BeenGone' - SouI - Textuar focuses (I9691 (9. Buttier-A. 2 1 . . r r l e y - B r _ o t h e r s( 1 9 6 9 ) ( R . r s l e y - o . Thing'-Soul Bell)-- rsley-R. rsley)--,rrt,g your -- t) t ape 3 9C (Soul cont 'd) 22. Dells (r969) (Junior and Funches)--"oh, wha! A Nightn Soul ballad. 23. J a m e s B r o w n ( f 9 6 9 ) ( J . B r o w n )- - , ' G i v e I t U p o r T u r n i t A Loose'r Poly-rhythu foundation and beat of soul in its developed f orm. 24. Jaraes Brown (r9G9) (J. Brown-A. etlis)--"sour 3ee notes to No. 22. pride (part I), 25. - JaAes Brown (1959) (J. Brown)--'Mother popcorn (part I), notes to No. ZZ. - see 26. Isley Brothers (Lg7g) (R. Isley-o. IsIey-R. lsley)--,,pgsgd66,r Lyrics deal with the meaning of "freedom" - rnftirnic drive, beat' lyric content and gosper vocal style trr.'t is characterisEic of soul uusiL 27- sly 28. Chi-Lites (I971) (EugeneRecord)--iGive t{ore power to the Feopler - SoclaI comnentary--soul. 29. J a m e EB r o s n ( 1 9 7 { ) ( J . B r o w n ) - - i f u n k y pol itical comentary--soul 39. The Drells b aI l a d . and the.Fanily stone (r9zg)' (s. stone)--nThank you Farettinme Be t{ice Elf Agin. - cross between soul and an emerging style that later was known as funk. For other Sound). president' - Social and (1972) "Give Your Baby a Standing Ovationn - Soul recordings of sour music see TapeE 35-39 (The Menphis : /- TAPE 4 9 Phi ladelphia International (note the use of the piano/organ'in these examples) l. The O'Jays (I972) (L. Huff-J. Whitehead-G. McFadden) -"Back stabbers'r - rntense gospel percussive lead vocar styre which is contrasted by the smooth vocar styre of background singers. piano used to strings dominate instrumental arrangement. fiIl in changing lead vocals. 2. Harord Hervin & The Blue Notes (L9721--"rf you Donrt Know Me By Now" - Pleading intense gospel vocal style complimented by a smooth background vocal style; orchestral instrumental arrangement, Teddy Pendergrass-lead vocal; gospel piano. (f973) (Kenny GambIe-Leon Huff)--"Slow Johnny Williams Motion" Stax/Southern R&B influenced vocal and instrumental style. The forerunner of what Iater \das to be known as the Phillv instrumental sound. Punctuating horns. (1973) (Kenny GambIe-Leon Huff-John Whitehead-Gene Intruders l,lcFadden)--"I'I1 Always Love Hy Mamar - Layed-back vocal style complimented by what was Iater to be as the phiIIy instrumental - strings added to horn ar!angements. 5. BilIy PauI (f973) (Kenny Gamble-Leon Huff-Cary. Gilberr)--'He and Mrs. Jonesn - Layed-back )azz oxiented vocal style and instrumental style. Punctuating horns under sustained string Iines. 5. - LayedBunny SigIer (f973) (B. Sigler-Phil Hurtt)--nRegina" back-gospel influenced vocal style; song begins with a short r6p, a concept popularized by Isaac Hayes of Stax. 7. Talk of the Town (I973) (Kenny Gamble-Leon Huff-John WhiteheadGene McFadden)--"Super Groover (AIl Night Mover)" - Style sinilar to that of the O'Jays and the "Hemphis Sound'; gospel-rooted vocals. o O'Jays (1973) (Kenny Gamble-Leon Huff)--"Love Train" Horns punctuate and sustain Iine notes to No. 1. provide melodic movenent. stringt 9. Forever' - Raspy gospel The Ebonye (t973) (Leon Huff)--rrltrs rootd lead vocal suPported by a smooth backgrou'nd style; changing lead vocals. 10. - See while HFSB (1973) (S. Stewart)--'rFami Iy Af f air" - Instrumental version of the vocal scjng. Fusion of the Southern R&B Funk instrumental stvle. ? Philadelphia T APE 4 1 International (see notes to Tape 47 for lI. L2' a discussion (cont'd) on the disco beat) Three Degrees (f973)--"Dirty OI, Manr,- Instrumental and vocal styres that predominate in oisco - use of 4 to a bar beat; song is transformed into instrumental; use of congas. Forerunner of the disco style, orchestration u""t. "na o ' J a y s ( 1 9 7 4 ) - - " F o r T h e L o v e o f M o n e y , r- F u n k instrumentar style; gosper vocar styre. polyriythmic sour ryiic theme of social commentary. 13. O'Jays (I9741 (B. Sigler-p. Hurt)--,,Sunshinen - GospeI vocal piano style complimented by string arrangement. r4. MFSB (r973) (K. Gamble-L. Huff)--',TSop (The sound of - Original Philadelphia" Soul Train T.V. dance show theme)" the forerunner of the disco beat. Innovative use of strings in conjunction with horns. see nofes to No.2 of Tape 46. 15. Harold Mervin & The Blue Notes (r9?5) (J. whitehead-G. McFadden -V. Carstarphen)--nBad Luck' - Funk bass,/Disco beat; punctuating horns gospel vocar style. Teddy pendergrass lead vocal style. r6. o'Jays (1975) (K. Gamble-L. Huff)--nGive The peopre whaE They wantn - same as No. 13. soul ryric theme of sociar c o m m e n t ay . r 17. People's Choice (I975) (Leon Huf f )--nDo It Funk bass line; disco beat. & Any Way you Wanna,, /+ -)f T APE 4 2 Phi ladelphia I nternational (contrd) I8. OtJays (f976) (K. GambIe-L. Huff)--,'Hessage In our Music', Soul vocal style combined with the ehiffy instrumental styte which produces the sound that became popular with disco. 19. Billy P a u I ( f 9 7 7 ) ( K . G a m b I e - L . H u ff ) - - " L e t theme of social commentary. The phitry 29. Teddy Pendergrass (1978) (K. Gamble-O L. Huff )--',CIose The Door'r - preading gosper vocat styre comprimented by rush strings. Instrumental arrangenents estiblish the mood for the song. 2L. Lou Rawls (1979)--"Let Me Be Good To your'- crooning pop vocal styre that makes use of elements from the gospet-anacrooning pop vocal style. Cross-over music. Effective use of percussive instruments. \-/. 22. Jones Girls ( L 9 7 9 )- - " y o u G o n n a M a k e M e L o v e s o m e b o d y E r s e " Cross between funk I disco - use of gospel vocal inflecEions & technique. 23. Jones GirIs (I979)--"I'm At Your tlercyn - Laid-back vocal style with the use of a gosper inflection and performance Practices accompanied by the PhiIly instrunental sound. 24. McFadden & whitehead (r979) (HcFadden-whitehead)--"Ain,t No Stopping us Nown - Funk,/disco st,yle - ryric theme of social comrnentary on the decade of the 1970's. 'Er0 In', - Lyric instrumentar sound. T ape 5 4 Personalized Styles (I974) --"Lady of Black Music 1970s 1. LaBelle 2. Gladys Knight 3. Isley 4. Conrnodores (]-976) --,'Just, TO Be Close To you,' 5. Stevie 6. A 1 G r e e n ( 1 , 9 7 5 )- - " L - O - V - E 7. Emotions 8. Maze 9. Earth, Wind & Fire 10. Millie Jackson 11. Natalie L2. Cheryl Marmalade" (L974)--',Love & The Pips (1975)--,'Fight Brothers Finds The power, part fts Own Way" I,l Wonder (1-976)--nI Wish" (L977 ) --"How'd (Love)" f ihow That Love Would Slip Away" (1977 ) - - "Happy Feelin' 't CoIe Lynn (L977)--"serpentine (1977 ) --uIf Fire" You're Not Back in (L977)--"Nothing Stronger Love By Mond.ay,, Than Love'l (l-978) --"GoE to Be Real'l Tape 5 4A Personalized Stvles of Black l-1. Chaka Khan (I978)--"Stay'r t2- Quincy Jonesr L3. Rick James (1978)--"You t4. Minnie L5 . R o s e R o y c e ( ! 9 7 9 ) - - nF i r s t 15. Jacksons t7. Gap Band (L979) --"Humpint rr Music t_970s arrangement. (1978) uTel1 Me A Bedtime RiperEon Storyn and I" (1-979)--"Memory Lanefl (1978) --"shake Come, First S e r : v en you Body (Down t.o The Ground) TAPE5 5 BALLAD! s ntGERS) ( s010 1960s nd1 970s a \t 1. Sam ooke19G2) ( C 2. Jerry E utler ( 1962) 3. LouR awles1966) ( 4 . : S olornonurke( 1965) B "YouS endl ,leo- .s1rcqth,-lyr.icals tyle w ith use o f g ospel- styled eliim ai m "M E asv0 n y our selfu - s m ooth,l 5nr i c al , pleadings tyie. "Love t s A H urting T hing,, _ s ar a s # Z "Gotta,G t y ou O ff'Ily M ind* - u Se;af t he w 13:lltl.lh{h:. osr.s ieech, hich-i.-"*n.srzes t ne s mooth tyle o f d elivery. 5. 0. C. Smith:(196S) "Little G reenA pples" - s mooth, t yrical -- style. 6. RobertaF lack ( L}TZ\ "The F irst T imeE ver t S an y our F ace' _ smooth,l yr.ical s tyle, 7 Deneece I 'Iilliam ( 1926) "Freeo - s trooth, I yical g. 9, 10. Bary t {hite ( 1974) Peabo ryson( lefe} B Teddy endergrass P ( 1978) 1 1 . l'fichaelH enderssr I 97g) ( I. L2- Snokey obinson 1980) R ( s tyle. . r :j:.:: T "You're heF irst, T heL ast, l 4yE ver.ythinq,, _ p receeded i F ap,-whicrr by i s:iiiiii._ :ongJ : terlstic o f l ,lhite_ 'Reiching f or t he k1,I - s nooth, h ighly melignailc A ospel sltyie. "CloseT he D oor' - e motional, p leadingrstyle. oTakel {a [ ,D y ours' - q notionafr,pTeading style. "Cruisin,o - s notional, p leadinE.yet T aid_ back s tyle. {r J 11a, T APE 5A 5 BALLADS c ontinued ( VOCet- ROUPS) G 1960sa nd 1 970s I "La-la M eans L ove" - s mooth,lyr ic al s ty l e; falsetto l ead v ocal. I ( Delfonics 1958) z. D e l s( 1 9 6 9 ) " 0 h , W h a tA N i g h t " - i n t e n s e , pleadi ngg os pel sty1e. 3. (1 Mornents 970) S "Love 0 n A T wo-l'lay treet" - s amea s # 1; use o f, g ospel i nflections 4. ( Delfonics 1970) "Didn' t I ( Blor Y our M ind T his T im e) ' - s am e as #1 5. Stylistics ( 1971) "You A re E verything" - s amea s # 1 5. l{ain I ngredient( L9721 P "Everybody lays T he F oolu - l eaning t oward a p leadings tyle- T. Chi-Tites( L972J "0h G irl'r - S iilla s # 2; g ospel s tyle p iano. 8. l'{ainI ngredient( 1974) nJust D on't t {ant T o B e L onely" - p leading style; u se o f g ospeTnflections. i 9. ( l'lanhattans1 979) T "Here C orne he H urt A gain" - g ospel p leading style. ( Ray, G oodnan B rown 1979) & (formerly. the t {oucnts ) ( Thel ilhispers1979) "Special L adyu- s dne a s # 3 10. 11. nLadyu t aid-back, s mooth,l yr.ical y et pleadings tyle....
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