Motivation - Motivation and Emotion Causes of Behavior...

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Motivation and Emotion
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Causes of Behavior Motivation a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal Emotion a complex reaction to some internal or external event
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Environment and behavior Operant Conditioning Associate response and its outcome B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behavior consequence
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Reinforcers Primary (natural) 2ndary (learned) Complex behaviors are learned Some are inherent Ex. Food aversion (Garcia, 1966)
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Drives and Hydraulic Model Drives: arousal that motivates behavior Konrad Lorenz (1949) Fixed action pattern (FAP): sequence of mvmts Key (sensory) stimulus: FAP occurs reliably in its presence Action specific energy: likelihood behav. will occur
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Drives and Hydraulic Model Fig. 11-3 Energy leaks out through valve
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Ex. Herring Gull
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Innate releasing mechanism Recognize key stimuli Release appropriate amount of action specific energy Ex’s: chick pecking on herring’s beak “Halloween Cat” Facial expressions in babies
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Usefulness of Drive Theory Explains how internal agencies control behavior Use discrete behaviors to compare behavior across species Generalizable
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Problems with Drive Theory Context No link between drives and brain activity Instead… Drives correlate w/ hormones & cellular activity: neural circuits Ex. androgens
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The role of chemical senses in motivation Neural Circuits
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Olfaction Most primitive sense Stimulus= chemicals in air Humans detect ~10,000 smells
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Receptors for smell Olfactory epithelium Receptor cells: cilia Mucosa: mucous layer Chemicals cause sodium chan to open through metabotropic receptors
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Receptors for smell: Fig. 11-6
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Motivation - Motivation and Emotion Causes of Behavior...

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