Chapter 25 - Chapter 25 1. Scientific method abuses in the...

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Chapter 25 1. Scientific method abuses in the drug industry a. Broaden the market b. Ignore the alternatives c. Comparison confounded by dose differences d. Testing the wrong age group e. Selective data release f. Ghostwriters 2. Arguemnts in violation of the scientific method a. Appeal to authority-a model should stand on its own ,erits b. Character assassination of opponent-attempt to discredit someones character c. Refusal to admit error and rationalize failures-is the refusal to specify the conditions under which a model should be rejected or the refusal to accept its refutation in the face of solid evidence against it d. Identify trival flaws in an opponents model- practice of searching for unimportant details about a model that are false and using those minor limitations as the basis for refuting the model e. Defend an unfalsifiable model-evolution f. Require refutation of all alternatives-this argument also takes fthe form of claiming that there is some truth to a model until it has been shown that there is nothing to it at all g. Heresy does not imply correctness- h. Build causation from correlation-correlations can be misleading 3. Introducing bias before the study-controlling the null model a. To control the null model means to “choose” the null model b. Easier to prove something not harmful that safe 4. Bias in experimental design and conduct of study a. Violation of accepted procedure i. Impact b. Change design in mid course
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i. Experiment is never completed it will not be reported c. Assay for a narrow spectrum of unlikely results i. Study might be confined to the most responsive age groups ii. A study can be designed to purposefully omit measure those negative effects and focus on others d. Protocol concealed i. It is easy to write a protocol that conceals how the study was actually conducted in some important respects e. Small samples i. Small samples increase the difficulty of demonstrating that a compound is hazardous f. Non random assignments i. Clever non random assignments could produce a strong bias in favor of either outcome g. Pseudo controls i. It is possible to describe many ways in which a control is treated roperly while omitting other ways in which a control is treated differently 5. After the study: Biased evaluation and presentation of results a. Telling only part of the story b. Lies with statistics i. Avoid presentation of unfavorable results and tests ii. Group different categories of subjects to obscure results iii. Chose an appropriate scale to display results favorably iv. Transform the data before testing v. Do a post hoc analysis of the data to modify the analysis vi. Suppress of inflate uncertainty 6. Minimize the abuses a. Publish protocols in advance of the study b. Publish the actual raw data
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c. Specify evaluation criteria before obtaining results d. Anticipate vested interets Brain Flaws 1)Lecture listed and explained several ways in which our brains are intrinsically prone to mislead us (away from the scientific truth). Which of the following are true?
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This note was uploaded on 06/09/2011 for the course ADVERTISIN 9390103 taught by Professor Murphey during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 25 - Chapter 25 1. Scientific method abuses in the...

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