Philosophy 101 notes for the whole class (Autosaved)

Philosophy 101 notes for the whole class (Autosaved) -...

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Philosophy 101 notes: 9/10/10 This is a summary of the ideas and principles that are developed in a much richer and complicated argument of chapter 2 ‘On Liberty’. If you cannot develop reasons and principles for a statement that you believe is true, it is not true. What do all of these views have fundamentally in common from the get go: they are all Christian philosophers and share this foundation that Christianity is the way to go. Course theme: we have free will and what that means to each of them becomes increasingly different. We have mind/ body dualism: we are creatures with a body and a soul and that is essential to what it means to be a human. They think the body is bad because it has impulses and drives- are all are impulses bad? (It depends on who you ask). For example Luther says Fasting is a good thing because it punishes the body and keeps it under control (our impulses). So while inherently are impulses may not all be bad they are all dangerous: food- gluttony. The soul stands in respect to this: the soul is superior to the body and exercises control over it. Free will: one of the things that seems to be important for this is that we must believe we have free will. We have some choice; so when confronted with our impulses we have a choice to either follow or reject them. That level or understanding of free will is very general; that we exercise control over ourselves- I want this but do I really want this? This might be illusory or deceptive- why? You can say to yourself that you have free will but just because in you have this play in your head where I’m going to do this or that, just by having those thoughts doesn’t mean there wasn’t any doubt that being who you are that was what you were going to do. So knowing we have free will is dicey as back but to these thinkers free will is not an illusion and is fundamental to who we are. Why is free will so central to the understanding to the human nature that these thinkers out forward? If people did something but didn’t do it voluntarily you don’t think of them as choosing to do that- so the difference seems to be in how we judge someone. Control over our actions and impulses is what free will means and if someone doesn’t have control over what they are doing we do not consider them morally responsible- they are not blameworthy or praiseworthy. So if you don’t have free will you don’t have responsibility and according to these thinkers God is holding us responsible- so if god didn’t give us free will and he didn’t give us free will he’d be a monster- they believe God holds us morally responsible and therefore must believe god gave us free will. Human nature: we have something in us that controls our impulses and it is the thing that makes us human. We think there is something tied into this that makes us human even if it illusory (so not unique to just Christian thinkers). Ex: guilty in a court of law but plead not guilty because of insanity- this is saying you could not control your impulses because
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Philosophy 101 notes for the whole class (Autosaved) -...

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