WTO-Nafta-Bogdandy-Fall05

WTO-Nafta-Bogdandy-Fall05 - I. INTRODUCTION AND...

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I. I NTRODUCTION   AND   FUNDAMENTALS A. C ONTEXT   AND   DEVELOPMENT   OF   THE  WTO 1. Key documents     a) WTO Agreement     (1) GATT 1947     (2) Annex 1A:  GATT 1994 (a) Agriculture     (b) Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures     (c) Textiles and clothing     (d) Technical barriers to trade     (e) TRIMS     (f) Anti-dumping     (g) Customs valuation     (h) Preshipment inspection     (i) Rules of origin     (j) Import licensing     (k) Subsidies and countervailing measures     (l) Safeguards     (3) Annex 1B:  GATS  (services) (4) Annex 1C:  TRIPS  (IP) (5) Annex 2:  DSU (6) Annex 3: Trade policy review mechanism (7) Annex 4: Plurilateral trade agreements b) The WTO in briefs     B. T HE  L EGAL  S TRUCTURE   OF   THE  WTO/GATT S YSTEM 1. Principle goal of GATT – to establish limitations on tariffs and to control the use of certain  non-tariff barriers to trade a) Liberalize trade b) Channel all border protection against imports into tariffs and provide for agreements  on tariff reduction with a number of exceptions c) Non intended to be an international org, but the death of the ITO left nothing else d) But no customary right to market access 2. Applied through the Protocol of Provisional Application a) GATT Art XXXI allowed a country to withdrawal from GATT after 6 mos notice,  the PPA shortened to 60 days b) “Existing legislation clause”   grandfather rights , allowed for broader accession c) Ended practice in WTO Charter (1) “Each member shall ensure the conformity of its laws, regulations, and  administrative   procedures   with   its   obligations   as   provided   in   the   annexed  agreements” (Art XVI:4, Charter)
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3. Governing structure 4. Jackson, Testimony before the Senate Financing Committee, 1994 a) Notes improvements b) Not self-executing; US must implement obligations 5. Decision-making:  Art IX   a) Ordinary decisions: simple majority, one member one vote b) Interpretations: MC and GC c) Waivers: MC under consensus or ¾ entire membership 6. Amendments:  Art X a) MC consensus or 2/3 vote entire membership (1) Generally 2/3 vote (2) If non-affecting, into force for all (3) If   affecting,   only   for   those   who   accept   unless   ¾   vote  w/   freedom   to  withdrawal or remain a member with MC permission
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7. Trade negotiating rounds (8) a) Tokyo – 9 special agreements (stand alone treaties) and 4 understandings (not  signed) b) Uruguay – WTO charter C. L EGAL  N ATURE   AND  P URPOSE   OF  WTO 1. WTO Agreement Preamble a) Recognizing that their relations in the field of trade and economic endeavour should  be conducted with a view to 
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WTO-Nafta-Bogdandy-Fall05 - I. INTRODUCTION AND...

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