meditation definitions - A posteriori - An a posteriori...

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A posteriori - An a posteriori truth is a truth that is arrived at by observing the world. An a posteriori fact is arrived at through a posteriori reasoning (reasoning that involves facts observed in the world). For example, the fact that John has blonde hair would be an a posteriori truth, based on a posteriori reasoning. The fact that heat is molecular motion would be another such fact. Many philosophers claim that all substantive facts about the world are a posteriori. A priori - An a priori truth is one that can be arrived at without any observations of the world. A priori reasoning looks only to logical connections between ideas. For example, the fact that all bachelors are unmarried is an a priori truth. In order to determine that this claim is correct you do not need to go out into the world and survey all bachelors. Rather, so long as you understand the meaning of the words involved, you know that the claim is true. Many philosophers believe that all a priori truths are tautologies like "all bachelors are unmarried." Though the term was not yet in use during Descartes' lifetime, Descartes would be an example of a philosopher who believed that a priori reasoning could produce substantive claims about the way the world is. Clear and Distinct Perception - Clear and distinct perceptions are defined by Descartes as those perceptions which are so self-evident that, while they are held in the mind, they cannot logically be doubted. Examples of clear and distinct perceptions include the propositions "A = A" and "I exist." All knowledge, according to Descartes, is supposed to proceed from clear and distinct perceptions; no proposition is supposed to be judged as true unless it is perceived clearly and distinctly. Cogito Ergo Sum - "Cogito Ergo Sum" is the Latin translation of Descartes' famous statement "I think, therefore I am." Often referred to as the "cogito" for short, this is the first certain truth that Descartes hits upon in Part I of the Principles. Empiricism - "Empiricism" is a collective name given to a variety of philosophical doctrines concerned with human knowledge. Empiricists generally believe that substantive knowledge requires experience and that there is no knowledge with which human beings are born. In
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meditation definitions - A posteriori - An a posteriori...

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