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lecture 5-self - Self-esteem Lecture 5 Self-esteem...

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Unformatted text preview: Self-esteem Lecture 5 Self-esteem Self-esteem Positive and negative self­evaluations – High SE = feel good about self – Low SE = feel bad about self Degree of self­worth Dimensions of the self Dimensions Our self has 3 dimensions – Actual self: Who we are – Ought self: Who we should be – Ideal self: Who we’d like to be Personal standards Actual self Ought self Ideal self I am motivated I should be patient I want to be more assertive Components of the self Sometimes, we fall short of personal standards Ought self Actual self I should be patient Impatient with brother Ideal self Actual self I want to be more assertive Passive with friend Discrepancies between actual & ought/ideal selves SE Actual ≠ ought Anxious, shame Lowered SE Actual ≠ ideal Dejected, frustration Lowered SE Other examples of discrepancies Other Ideal self Actual self Weighs less No weight loss Doesn’t procrastinate Still procrastinate Difficult to learn Speaks Spanish Drop in SE Ought self Actual self Get good grades Got some C’s, D’s Polite to all Snapped at roommate Self-discrepancy theory Self-discrepancy SE is based on match between actual & ought/ideal selves Ought self I should be more patient & Actual self Patient with brother High SE Ideal self I want to be more assertive & Actual self Assertive with friend When do we focus on the discrepancies? discrepancies? Self­aware Self­focus compare self to personal standards – Standing in front of audience – Looking into a mirror – Watching ourselves on video Am I poised enough? Do I sound stupid? Why is my voice so high? Self-Awareness When current behavior ≠ standards – Cheating on test 2 options – Match behavior to standard Stop cheating – Turn attention away from self Stop thinking about standards Beaman et al. (1979) Halloween study Beaman • Sign said: Please take only one piece of candy 35 30 25 % who took 20 more than 1 15 piece 10 5 0 No Mirror Mirror Present Increases self-awareness Deindividuation A state of lowered self­awareness Diener et al. (1976) Halloween study • Bowl of candy and money present; told take only one candy 60 50 % who took 40 more than 1 30 piece, money, or both 20 10 0 Alone in Costume First Person in Group in Costume Self-focusing persons Self-focusing Some are more self­focused than others Private vs. public self­consciousness: – Private self­consciousness: Focus on inner thoughts and feelings – Public self­consciousness: Focus on outer public image Draw a capital E on your forehead with your finger your % who oriented "E" for outside observer 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Low High Level of Public Self-Consciousness Measuring Self-Esteem (explicitly) Measuring Implicitly Measured Self-Esteem Implicitly Unidentified (or inaccurately identified) effect of self­attitude on the relative evaluation of self­associated objects Measuring Self-Esteem (implicitly) Measuring Measuring Self-Esteem (implicitly) Measuring Why not always rely on implicit measures of self esteem? measures Weak correlation with explicit measures Weak correlations among different implicit measures (Bosson, Swann, & Pennebaker,2000) Both raise doubts about construct validity Methods People Use To Feel Better About Themselves About Method #1: Self-serving cognitions Method Take credit for success and distance from failure – Good grade: I’m smart I studied hard – Bad grade: Poorly written test Prof didn’t prepare us Method #2: Self-handicapping Often make excuses for past performance – “My computer crashed” – “The ref made a bad call” Sometimes make excuses for future performance – When afraid we may fail “I’m sick, so I won’t get a chance to study” “I have 2 other midterms and 2 papers due this week, so I won’t get a chance to study” Self-handicapping Self-handicapping Behaviors that sabotage performance to provide an excuse for failure Procrastination Drinking or taking drugs Not practicing Why self-handicap? Why An ingenious strategy – Protects SE with failure and enhances SE with success Party the night before an exam – Get a D = perfect excuse – Get at A = you’re brilliant Has its costs – Increases risk of failure – People don’t like self­handicappers Method #3: Basking In the Reflected asking the eflected Glory of others We BIRG by associating with successful people – Hometown sports team clothing increases after team wins – Friend does something great Basking in reflected glory Basking Accentuating our association with successful others – Celebrity connections “My uncle is friends with Tiger Woods” – Sports fans “I can’t believe we won!” “Our defense was amazing!” Cialdini et al. (1976): Study 1 Cialdini Recorded percentage of students wearing college apparel on day after football win or loss More apparel worn following wins Cialdini et al. (1976): Study 2 Cialdini Follow­up study on pronoun choice IVs: – Success vs. failure feedback – Asked to talk about win vs. loss DV: use of “we” or “they” Cialdini et al. (1976): Study 2 Cialdini “We” used to describe wins “They” used to describe losses Method #4: Downward social comparison comparison Making comparisons with worse others – I might have done bad, but Bobby did worse Especially true if experiencing a difficult life event Breast cancer study: Bogart & Helgeson (2000) Breast ♀ in early­stage breast cancer, in support groups 53% used downward social comparisons – – – Lumpectomy not as bad as full mastectomy Older ♀ felt sorry for younger ♀ Married ♀ felt bad for unmarried ♀ ♀ who made downward social comparisons felt better Agony and ecstasy at the Olympics Agony Medvec, Madey, & Gilovich (1995) Raters compared how happy the silver and bronze medalists seemed to be Agony and ecstasy at the Olympics Bronze medalists seemed happier than silver medalists­ why? Bronze medalists made downward social comparison felt good – “I could have not medaled at all” Silver medalists made upward social comparison felt bad – “I almost won a gold medal” ...
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