Unit one notes - Class 1&2 January 20 25 Feb 1 2011 PSY 418...

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PSY 418 Knowledge Acquisition takes place through: o Tenacity (Old wives tales) Statements that have not been validated No method for error correction o Authority Authority figure imparting knowledge without background Can be wrong (Church: earth is center of universe = false) o Reason (logic) Flawed because original premise may be incorrect o Common sense - intuition Direct experience limited Perceptions Interpretation of physics environment Flawed o Scientific method Reason Common sense Experimental o Cycle of Science Observation->Hypothesis->Prediction->Experiment-> Scientific Skepticism o Most skeptical of own data and own ideas o A good scientist will never prove anything, only disprove Experiment o Variables Alcohol consumption (Independent Variable – IV – What I control - Causal) Driving (Dependant Variable – DV – Variable Affected) Operational definition – describe specific process of how you are going to measure variables Common variables in psychological science Self report o Popular because you can get a lot of data quickly o Valid for mood o Weakness: people lie or misrepresent o Bias (some people like to agree with things, some like to disagree) Framing Behavioral measures
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o More objective than self report o Costly Physiological o fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging maps brain function for different tasks shows location where activity is taking place well, but is slow o EEG: Is quick to show activity, but not location Reliability Consistency or stability across measurements o IQ, SAT, GRE o Self report not very reliable – combat this by asking
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Unit one notes - Class 1&2 January 20 25 Feb 1 2011 PSY 418...

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