ASHRAE Green Guide.pdf - https\/boilersinfo.com ASHRAE GreenGuide The Design Construction and Operation of Sustainable Buildings https\/boilersinfo.com

ASHRAE Green Guide.pdf - https/boilersinfo.com ASHRAE...

This preview shows page 1 out of 415 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 415 pages?

Unformatted text preview: ASHRAE GreenGuide The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings This publication was developed under the auspices of the GreenGuide Subcommittee of TC 1.10, Energy Resources, and TC 2.8, Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability. TC 1.10 and TG 2 BIE, Buildings’ Impacts on the Environment, were merged in October 2002 to form TC 2.8. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS John M. Swift, Jr. Cannon Design, Boston, MA E. Mitchell Swann MDC Systems Corp., LLC Thomas Lawrence University of Georgia, Athens, GA Ainul Abedin Past President, ASHRAE Pakistan Chapter H. Jay Enck Commissioning & Green Building Solutions, Buford, GA Brian A. Rock School of Architecture and Urban Design, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS Malcolm Lewis CTG Energetics, Irvine, CA David L. Grumman, Editor of the first edition of the GreenGuide, Grumman/Butkus Associates, Evanston, IL Neil Moiseev Shen Milsom & Wilke, Inc., New York, NY John Lane Evapco, Inc., Taneytown, MD John Andrepont The Cool Solutions Company, Lisle, IL Paul Torcellini and Michael Deru National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Wladyslaw Jan Kowalski Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Steven Rosen Autodesk, Boston, MA Jerry Ackerman Clearwater Systems Corporation, Essex, CT Jordan L. Heiman St. Louis, MO Mark Mendell, Michael Forth, and James Bones Cannon Design, Boston, MA Len Damiano Green Building Controls Subcommittee Chair, ASHRAE TC 1.4, and Ebtron Kimberly Barker ASHRAE TC 1.4, and Siemens Bill Becker Chicago ITT and Urban Wind Design, Chicago, IL Bion Howard Building Environmental Science and Technology, Hilton Head, SC Mark Hertel ASHRAE TC 6.7, and SunEarth, Inc. Constantinos A. Balaras Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens (NOA) Amy Butterfield Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Michael Gallivan Turner Construction Co., Inc. Mark Hydemann and Glenn Friedman Taylor Engineering, Alameda, CA Ron Perkins Supersymmetry USA, Navasota, TX Vikas Patnaik and Mick Schwedler Trane, Co., LaCrosse, WI Hal Levin Building Ecology Research Group, Santa Cruz, CA Krishnan Gowri Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA Gail S. Brager University of California, Berkely, CA Dean Borges University of Nevada, Reno, NV Paul McGregor McGregor & Associates, Lake Cove, Australia Brad Jones Sebesta Blomberg, Boston, MA David Bearg Life Energy Associates, Newton, MA Kevin Cross Honeywell, Ft. Collins, CO Karl Stum Summit Building Engineering, LLC, Vancouver, WA Guy S. Frankenfield Natgun Corporation Dean S. Borges University of Nevada, Reno, NV Eddie Leonardi School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ASHRAE GreenGuide The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC. AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier ISBN 1-933742-07-0 ISBN 978-1-933742-07-6 ©2006 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, GA 30329 Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA All rights reserved. First edition published 2003. Second edition 2006. Printed in the United States of America. Printed on 100% recycled paper. Cover design by Tracy Becker. ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in the publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any statement or opinion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user. No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, recording, or other—without permission in writing from ASHRAE. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ASHRAE greenguide : the design, construction, and operation of sustainable buildings. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. Summary: "The ASHRAE GreenGuide was developed primarily to provide guidance to designers of HVAC&R systems in how to participate effectively on design teams charged with producing green buildings"--Provided by publisher. ISBN 1-933742-07-0 (hardcover) 1. Sustainable buildings--Design and construction. 2. Sustainable architecture. 3. Buildings-Environmental engineering. I. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. II. Title: ASHRAE green guide. TH880.A83 2006 720'.47--dc22 2006029914 ASHRAE STAFF SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS PUBLISHING SERVICES Mildred Geshwiler Editor David Soltis Manager Christina Helms Associate Editor Tracy Becker Graphic Applications Specialist Cindy Sheffield Michaels Assistant Editor Jayne Jackson Publication Traffic Administrator Michshell Phillips Administrative Assistant PUBLISHER W. Stephen Comstock Tomorrow’s Child Without a name, an unseen face, And knowing not the time or place, Tomorrow’s Child, though yet unborn, I saw you first last Tuesday morn. A wise friend introduced us two, And through his shining point of view I saw a day, which you would see, A day for you, and not for me. Knowing you has changed my thinking, Never having had an inkling That perhaps the things I do Might someday threaten you. Tomorrow’s Child, my daughter-son, I’m afraid I’ve just begun To think of you and of your good, Though always having known I should. Begin I will to weigh the cost Of what I squander, what is lost, If ever I forget that you Will someday come to live here too. by Glenn Thomas, ©1996 Reprinted from Mid-Course Correction: Toward a Sustainable Enterprise: The Interface Model by Ray Anderson. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1999. This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTENTS FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii How to Use This ASHRAE GreenGuide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix SECTION I: BASICS CHAPTER 1—GREEN/SUSTAINABLE HIGH-PERFORMANCE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Relationship to Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 “ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Commitment to Green/Sustainable High-Performance Projects . . . . . . . . . . . 6 What Drives Green Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Ingredients of a Successful Green Project Endeavor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Engineering/Energy Conservation Ethic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Incentives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Building Team Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CHAPTER 2—BACKGROUND AND FUNDAMENTALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Sustainability in Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Fundamentals of Related Engineering Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Applications to HVAC&R Systems and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Summary of Engineering Application Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 References and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 vii SECTION 2: THE DESIGN PROCESS CHAPTER 3—COMMISSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 CxA’s Role and Owner’s Project Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commissioning Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of a CxA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Systems to Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commissioning Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Commissioning Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 50 50 51 52 CHAPTER 4—ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IMPACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Site Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Form/Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arrangement/Grouping of Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climatic Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interdependency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building-Type GreenTips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 56 56 57 60 61 62 62 CHAPTER 5—THE DESIGN PROCESS—EARLY STAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Owner’s Role. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Design Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Engineer’s Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Delivery Methods and Contractor Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Successful Approaches to Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concept Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expressing and Testing Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verbal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagrammatic/Pictorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Information Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 76 76 82 83 85 88 91 91 91 91 93 CHAPTER 6—LEED GUIDANCE FOR HVAC ENGINEERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 LEED Credits Affecting Minimum Energy Performance (MEP) Design . . .101 Sustainable Sites (SS) Credits Affecting MEP Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Water Efficiency (WE) Credits Affecting MEP Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Energy and Atmosphere Credits Affecting MEP Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 viii LEED Commissioning Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Materials and Resources Credits Affecting HVAC Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Credits Affecting MEP Design . . . . 115 LEED Registration and Certification Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 CHAPTER 7—CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING DESIGN— LOAD DETERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Energy Impacts of Architectural Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Thermal/Mass Transfer of Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Engineering Load-Determining Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 System/Equipment Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 CHAPTER 8—SPACE THERMAL/COMFORT DELIVERY SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Energy Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Energy Delivery Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Occupied-Space Energy Delivery Means (Air Terminals/Conductive/Convective/Radiant Devices). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Provision of Outside Air Ventilation Mechanical Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . 149 CHAPTER 9—INTERACTION WITH THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Why a Chapter on This? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Cooling Tower Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 District Energy Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Water Consumption Due to Cooling System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Cooling System Heat Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Green Roof and Cool Roof Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Designing Healthy Buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 HVAC, Building Envelope, and IAQ Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 ix CHAPTER 10—ENERGY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 198 202 203 CHAPTER 11—ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Heat Generators (Heating Plants). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooling Generators (Chilled-Water Plants) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distributed Electricity Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 207 209 215 215 CHAPTER 12—ENERGY/WATER SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Renewable/Nonrenewable Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 253 260 262 262 262 CHAPTER 13—LIGHTING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Electric Lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daylight Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Light Conveyor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lighting Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sources of Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 286 289 289 291 292 CHAPTER 14—PLUMBING AND FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic Water Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sanitary Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storm Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Suppression Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smoke Management Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x 297 298 299 299 299 299 299 CHAPTER 15—BUILDING CONTROL SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Control System Role in Delivering Energy Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Control System Role in Delivering Water Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Control System Role in Delivering IEQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Control System Commissioning Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Control System Role in Attaining LEED Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Designing for Sustained Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 References to Other Sources of Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 CHAPTER 16—COMPLETING DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION FOR CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Drawings/Documents Stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Specifying Materials/Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Cost Estimating and Budget Reconciliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 SECTION 3: POST-DESIGN—CONSTRUCTION TO DEMOLITION CHAPTER 17—CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
View Full Document

  • Fall '19

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes