management - Organizations as Rational Systems Prepared by...

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Organizations as Rational Systems Prepared by Anna Lin, 9041816 This paper introduces Rational System Perspectives in relations to four promin ent schools of organization theory; which are Taylor’s scientific management, Fayol’s general principles of management, Weber’s theory of bureaucracy and Simon’s discussion on administrative behavior. Rational System Perspectives There are two key elements characterizing rational systems: 1) Goal Specificity Specific goals support rational behavior in organizations by providing guideli nes on structural design, which leads to specify what tasks are to be performe d and how resources are to be allocated. 2) Formalization Formalization is an attempt to make behavior more predictable by standardizing and regulating. Formalization provides stable expectation, which is a precond ition to rationality. Selected schools The author related rational system perspectives to four schools of organizatio nal theories. Taylor’s Scientific Management (1911) Taylor Scientifically analyzed tasks performed by individual workers and disco vered the best procedure that would produce the maximum output with the minimu m input of resources. His attempts (to rationalize labor at level of the indiv idual worker )led to changes in the entire structure of work arrangement. Ther efore, efficiency improved. His four principles includes: 1) Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work. 2) Scientifically select and train workers. 3) Heartily cooperate with workers to ensure that each work is done as plan. 4) Divide work and responsibilities between management and workers. Taylor also proposed the use of incentive system based on performance as a mot ivation tool. Arguments: 1) Workers resisted time-study procedures that attempt to standardize every as
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pect of their performance. 2) Workers rejected incentive system requiring them to perform continuously at a peak level of efficiency. Fayol’s Administrative Theory (1916)
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management - Organizations as Rational Systems Prepared by...

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