Notes Topic 8 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Figure 8-11...

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8-1 1 INTRODUCTION 2 WIND RESOURCES 3 WIND TURBINE COMPONENTS AND CONCEPTS 4 WIND TURBINE AERODYNAMICS 5 WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN AND BLADE MANUFACTURE 6 WIND TURBINE MECHANICAL DESIGN 7 GENERATORS 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2 Wind Resources ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3 Wind Turbine Components and Concepts .................................................................................................... 1 4 Wind Turbine Aerodynamics ........................................................................................................................ 1 5 Wind Turbine Blade Design and Blade Manufacture ................................................................................... 1 6 Wind Turbine Mechanical Design ................................................................................................................ 1 7 Generators ..................................................................................................................................................... 1 8 GRID CONNECTION and POWER CONDITIONING .............................................................................. 2 8.1 Inverter Overview ................................................................................................................................... 2 8.2 Grid Connection of Asynchronous Generators ...................................................................................... 4 8.2.1 Direct Grid Connection of Asynchronous Generators ..................................................................... 5 8.2.2 Indirect Connection of Asynchronous Generators .......................................................................... 5 8.2.2.1 Squirrel cage AS with full variable speed .................................................................................... 6 8.2.2.2 Wound Rotor AS Generators Partial Variable Speed .................................................................. 7 8.2.2.2.1 Slip Recovery .......................................................................................................................... 7 8.2.2.2.2 Cycloconverter ........................................................................................................................ 8 8.2.2.2.3 Double fed Asynchronous Generator ..................................................................................... 8 8.3 Grid connection of synchronous generators ........................................................................................... 9 8.4 Power Conditioning and Power Quality ............................................................................................... 10 8.4.1 Voltage Fluctuations or Flicker ..................................................................................................... 10 8.4.2 Power Factor .................................................................................................................................. 10 8.4.3 Harmonics ...................................................................................................................................... 10 8.4.4 Islanding ........................................................................................................................................ 11 8.5 Battery Charging Control Systems ....................................................................................................... 11 8.5.1 Series Regulation ........................................................................................................................... 11 8.5.2 Shunt Regulation . .......................................................................................................................... 12 8.6 Wind and Diesel Hybrid Mini Grids .................................................................................................... 13 Figure 8-1 Examples of grid connect inverters from Xantrex Technology, a leading manufacturer of power converters ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 Figure 8-2 Schematic for a current source inverter for a permanent magnet synchronous motor ...................... 3 Figure 8-3 Schematic for a voltage source inverter for a permanent magnet synchronous motor ...................... 3 Figure 8-4 Generation of a pulse width modulated (PWM) waveform ............................................................... 4 Figure 8-5 Schematic of circuitry showing silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR’s) using for soft-starting (one phase shown only) ......................................................................................................................................... 5 Figure 8-6 Schematic of an inverter system used in variable speed, grid connected, turbine ............................. 6 Figure 8-7 Schematic of the Static Kraemer slip recovery system ...................................................................... 7 Figure 8-8 Schematic of the double fed asynchronous generator (DFAG) ......................................................... 8 Figure 8-9 The 25kVA power converter used in conjunction with a 20kW synchronous generator wind turbine at MUERI .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Figure 8-10 Block diagram of series regulation controller ................................................................................ 12 8-2 Figure 8-11 Block diagram of shunt regulation using a resistive load .............................................................. 13 Figure 8-12 Installation of a 640kW Diesel Genset .......................................................................................... 13 Figure 8-13 The working principle of a wind-diesel system ............................................................................. 14 8 GRID CONNECTION AND POWER CONDITIONING Grid connection refers to the electrical interface between the electric generator within the turbine and the utility grid. The design of the turbine and in particular the type of generator used, fundamentally determines the requirements of the grid connection. In all modern wind turbines the, microprocessor based, supervisory control system manages the interface with the grid. The simplest form of grid connection is direct grid connection , where the generated power is directly exported to the utility grid without the use of a power converter. Fixed speed turbines using asynchronous generators commonly use this type of grid connection. Variable speed turbines often use a power converter, installed between the generator and the utility grid. This power converter enables the generator to operate
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