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Notes Topic 11 - 1 INTRODUCTION 2 WIND RESOURCES 3 WIND...

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11-1 1 INTRODUCTION 2 WIND RESOURCES 3 WIND TURBINE COMPONENTS AND CONCEPTS 4 WIND TURBINE AERODYNAMICS 5 WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN AND BLADE MANUFACTURE 6 WIND TURBINE MECHANICAL DESIGN 7 GENERATORS 8 GRID CONNECTION AND POWER CONDITIONING 9 OPERATION CONTROL OF WIND TURBINES 10 CONTROL FOR SAFETY 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 1 2 Wind Resources ........................................................................................................................................... 1 3 Wind Turbine Components and Concepts ................................................................................................... 1 4 Wind Turbine Aerodynamics ....................................................................................................................... 1 5 Wind Turbine Blade Design and Blade Manufacture .................................................................................. 1 6 Wind Turbine Mechanical Design ............................................................................................................... 1 7 Generators .................................................................................................................................................... 1 8 Grid Connection and Power Conditioning ................................................................................................... 1 9 Operation Control of Wind Turbines ........................................................................................................... 1 10 Control for Safety ......................................................................................................................................... 1 11 SITING, PLANNING APPROVAL AND INSTALLATION OF SMALL TURBINES ........................... 2 11.1 Siting ..................................................................................................................................................... 2 11.1.1 Local topography / wind obstructions ............................................................................................ 2 11.1.2 Distance to occupied buildings ....................................................................................................... 3 11.1.3 Distance to grid or battery room ..................................................................................................... 3 11.2 Planning Approval – Hamilton Hill Case Study ................................................................................... 4 11.2.1 Background ..................................................................................................................................... 4 11.2.2 Obtaining planning approval to install the 20kW turbine .............................................................. 5 11.3 Installation – Exmouth Case Study ....................................................................................................... 6 11.3.1 Typical tower designs and foundation layout ................................................................................. 6 11.3.2 Foundations and anchors ................................................................................................................ 7 11.3.3 Civil works for electrical cable ..................................................................................................... 10 11.3.4 Tower & Gin-pole assembly ......................................................................................................... 11 11.3.5 Guy wires ...................................................................................................................................... 13 11.3.6 Connecting the Turbine to the Tower ........................................................................................... 14 11.3.7 Tower Erecting ............................................................................................................................. 16 11.4 Final Adjustments and Commissioning .............................................................................................. 17 Figure 11-1 The effect of obstructions on turbulence ........................................................................................ 3 Figure 11-2 Erecting method of a guyed tower with a gin pole and tow up vehicle .......................................... 6 Figure 11-3 A typical foundation plan for a wind turbine ................................................................................. 7 Figure 11-4 Two foundations that have been shuttered (note the string line that is used for ensuring the foundations are in line) ................................................................................................................................ 8 Figure 11-5 Pouring of concrete foundations into a shuttered hole .................................................................... 9 Figure 11-6 Guy wire anchors cast into the concrete block ............................................................................... 9 Figure 11-7 Trenching for the underground cable ............................................................................................ 10 11-2 Figure 11-8 ( left ) Lowering an inverter onto the pad (note the conduits protruding the pad) and ( right ) Electrical equipment after installation (dump load in the foreground, three inverters and green metering box) ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 Figure 11-9 Bolting the tower sections together ............................................................................................... 11 Figure 11-10 ( top ) The tower and gin pole fully assembled and attached to the hinge assembly, and ( bottom ) close up of the hinge assembly before standing the gin pole ..................................................................... 12 Figure 11-11 Lifting the gin pole to the vertical position ................................................................................. 13 Figure 11-12 Trial raise of the tower to check guy lengths .............................................................................. 14 Figure 11-13 Installing the nacelle onto the top tower flange .......................................................................... 15 Figure 11-14 Fastening the blades onto the hub ............................................................................................... 15 Figure 11-15 Attaching the tail boom ............................................................................................................... 16 Figure 11-16 Attaching the gin pole tie bar between the gin pole and the foundation block (note the sheave system) ....................................................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 11-17 The Exmouth Mini wind farm after commissioning (3 x 20kW Westwind turbines) ................ 18 11 INSTALLING SMALL WIND TURBINES 11.1 Siting Deciding on the actual position to install a small turbine is based on a series of compromises between factors such as those outlined below. Generally the influence of these factors is learned by experience, although general rules-of-thumb may be used to identify an optimal location. A poorly sited turbine may be fated to have significantly increased installation costs, increased maintenance and or mediocre power production.
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