Cafferey's revised paper

Cafferey's revised paper - 1 Caffrey Francis April 2 2011...

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1 Caffrey Francis April 2, 2011 Ancient Greece Dr. Smith Plutarch: Greek Lives. Oxford University Press, 1998. Title Before Athens and Sparta became city-states with fairly stable governments, several factors led to the formation of their constitution . In the age of the Basileis, their primary concern was themselves, their extended family, and the people who were bonded to them by guest- friendship. The Basileis were highly competitive and individualistic. Since agriculture was essential to a city, the defense of farmlands increased. The Basileis were heads of the Oikoi, and they maintained very strong-separate-identities, so the cities were not really unified. The city was transform ed from the independent Oikoi to the unity of the city as a whole. Therefore, new military tactics were built that centered on cooperation and a sense of equality. The ethos of the phalanx and infantry warfare in classical Greece was an ethos of cooperation and coordination. The values that arise from this are contrary to those of the Basileis in the Dark Ages. During the sixth and seventh centuries BC, there were many tyrannies happening because of the tension of the formation of the city structure. The gradual increase in participation in government is what drove this tension. Although in the sixth century Drako wrote the earliest written laws for Athens, his laws were extremely harsh. The written law and tyranny were used to implement a common political identity for all of the citizens and also to dispose of the old, Basileis-dominated period. The emergence of democratic government owes itself to the emergence of the phalanx, which create d the preconditions for more democratic regimes. As the Greek states in the classical
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2 period bec ame more developed Athens and Sparta were seen as two cities at odds with each other. Though the constitutions of Athens and Sparta were both centered on the idea of unity and justice, they implemented the foundations of their city differently . Athens incorporated individuals through ideals of religious piety and justice, whereas Sparta built camaraderie through strict homogenization of the individuals. In Athens, all citizens could participate in politics and had to pay taxes. In Sparta, everyone was equal to each other; therefore citizens had a balance between individual quest s for glory and unity. In 590 BC, the Athenian democracy
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Cafferey's revised paper - 1 Caffrey Francis April 2 2011...

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