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finalexamnotes - Sept 25th 2007 Choosing A Topic(Ch 5...

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Sept. 25th, 2007 Choosing A Topic (Ch. 5) & Research (Ch. 6) Choosing A Topic: 5 Canons of Rhetoric - Invention- generation of materials for the speech. Begin by identifying what could go into the speech, then you conduct research to determine what ideas are supportable, and then you select the most effective materials for your purpose and audience. - Arrangement- structuring of ideas and materials in the speech. - Style- distinctive character that may make a speech easily recognizable or memorable. It is achieved through language, both to evoke emotions and to convey descriptive meaning. - Delivery- presentation of the speech. Involves the effective use of voice, gesture, facial expression, physical movement, and visual aids. - Memory- used to be important, but now most speakers use extemporaneous presentation (using an outline) or manuscript presentation (reading from a written script.) What makes a good topic? - Importance to speaker- a good topic is one that matters to you - Interest to the audience- must offer new information they can use, offer a solution to a puzzle or problem that affects them, connects what is unfamiliar to them to what they know, or reports stories or experiences similar to their own. - Worthy of listeners’ time - Appropriateness of scope- speaker should cover topic to an appropriate degree within the time available. - Appropriateness for oral delivery- should not be a topic that is better for an essay than a speech. - Clarity- speaker should make it clear to all listeners what the topic is. 3 steps in choosing a good topic: 1. Conduct a personal inventory. o What public issues do I care about? o What experiences have I had that might be generalizable? o Which of my interests overlap with those of the audience? 2. Use finding aids- i.e. brainstorming, 3. Narrow the topic- sharpening your focus so you concentrate on only some part of a broad topic. *Strategic Plan- identifies purpose of speech, constraints on it, and opportunities it provides. The Purpose Statement - The general purpose statement: statement of the overall goal of the speech: providing new information or perspective, agenda setting, creating positive or negative feeling, strengthening
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commitment, weakening commitment, conversion, or inducing a specific action. - The specific purpose statement: statement of the particular outcome sought from the audience. The Thesis Statement: a succinct statement of the central idea or claim made by the speech. Indicates what you want to put into the speech. Sums the speech up in a single sentence that you most want listeners to remember. Research: - Three basic goals of research and analysis o To develop or strengthen your won expertise on the topic o To find the evidence that will support your ideas o To make your ideas clear, understandable, and pertinent to your audience - 7 Types of Supporting Material - Personal Experience - Common Knowledge - Direct Observation - Examples o brief example- examples that aren’t developed in great detail o hypothetical example o anecdote- aka story, allows you to develop an example in greater detail o case study- zeroing in on one particular true case and discussing it in detail.
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