foragers h-g ch11

foragers h-g ch11 - Hunter­Gatherers/ Foragers...

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Unformatted text preview: Hunter­Gatherers/ Foragers Hunter­Gatherers/ Foragers Chapter 11 Key Characters of Key Characters of Hunter­Gatherers (H­G) s Band – influence of leaders limited – leaders w/o formal authority Egalitarian s Kin­based s = social relations promote flexibility s = resource rights to ALL members s Anthropological studies of H­G Anthropological studies of H­G have emphasized: A tight link between environment and social organization and development After reading chapter 11, After reading chapter 11, answer: 1) How does forager social organization and complexity vary depending on abundance and availability of natural resources? s 2) Describe with at least 2 examples how family structure and economic systems are linked s ?s continued: ?s continued: s 3) How do the Ainu bridge the gap between bears and humans? – give examples where bears are equivalent with humans and gods Numaym concept in book Numaym s Be able to define and discuss this... H­G/ foragers­ important in H­G/ foragers­ important in Anthropology s As the basis of evolutionary studies – e.g. Lewis­H Morgan; 1970 ecological idealism – assumption: complexity evolved from simplicity Model for small scale, egalitarian societies (analog) s Perceptions of H­G have conformed to and effected change in theory s For two centuries H­G have For two centuries H­G have been considered s Simple – base of the unilineal model Static s “Primitive Communism” s Isolated s – e.g., Kalahari desert periphery (San, ! Kung, “Bushman”) Primitive Communism Primitive Communism Collective ownership of means of production (materials and tools) s reciprocity and equal sharing s little emphasis on accumulation s Primitive Communism as Primitive Communism as original social form? s Is this fundamental primordial human nature? Recently Recently H­G construct w/o empirical or evolutionary validity s To describe a mode of subsistence only (“living off the land”)­> ok, but: s Cross­cultural analysis ­> the essential qualities of h­g’s do not hold... s Unilineal model assumes: Unilineal model assumes: Simple cultures (living h­g s) have long histories of equality and s they are non­dynamic s s Pleistocene (H­G)­>10,000 BP­> 8,500 (Chiefdoms) ­> 6,000 BP (States) NO STRUCTURAL LINK NO STRUCTURAL LINK BETWEEN H­G SUBSISTENCE and Egalitarianism s Generalized reciprocity s Settlement mobility s Kinship patterns s Now we have come to Now we have come to understand that “H­Gs” are A historical consequence of state expansion and political oppression s Representative of a HUGE diversity of lifestyles s – gypsies – San, !Kung – Mexican Kickapoo In Anthropology now: 2 main In Anthropology now: 2 main schools of thought on H­G’s Evolutionary or Behavioral Ecology & Revisionist Ethnography (Political Economy/History) Revisionist Ethnography Revisionist Ethnography attention to roles of encapsulation and exploitation, shaping traits assumed to be the product of natural selection or adaptation s Culture and history matter s “Foragers” have histories of contact with complex societies s World Systems s Film: First Contact Film: First Contact s Assumptions about primitiveness... ...
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