Act11_sol - 12/12/05 Activity 11 Solutions: Ionizing...

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12/12/05 1 Activity 11 Solutions: Ionizing Radiation II 11.1 Additional Sources of Ionizing Radiation 1) Cosmic Rays Your instructor will show you radiation events in a cloud chamber. Look for vapor trails that do not seem to come from one of the radioactive sources. What could be the source for events that occur away from any of the radioactive sources? Cosmic rays from space, which consist mostly of very high energy protons. 2) X-Rays a) What are X-rays? X-rays are high energy photons that are slightly less energetic than gamma particles. b) How are X-rays produced? X-rays are produced when a beam of electrons strikes a piece of metal. As the electrons slow down, some of their kinetic energy is converted into X-ray photons. c) How do we know that X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation? X-ray expose photographic film by ionizing molecules in the film, which causes a chemical reaction. d) How does ionizing radiation differ from other types of radiation, such as microwaves, infrared radiation, or visible light? Radiation is a general term that refers to anything, such as energy or particles that radiate outward from a source. Ionizing radiation is radiation that causes atoms in its path to be ionized, or stripped of one or more electrons. Ionizing radiation can be particularly damaging to living things. 11.2 How Are All Types of Ionizing Radiation Detected? 3) Detection of ionizing radiation a) What do film badges do? Photographic film can be exposed by ionizing radiation. Radiation workers wear film badges that contain pieces of film in light-tight plastic holders. Every month the film in the film badge can be developed and checked for exposure to radiation. Provided the badge is always worn by the radiation worker, this can reveal the radiation exposure of the worker. b) List three ways we’ve seen in class to detect ionizing radiation. Geiger counter, cloud chamber, film badge
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12/12/05 2 11.3 What Is the Strength of Ionizing Radiation? 4) The strength of ionizing radiation a) Use the Geiger counter and a timer to find the background radiation in the room by counting the number of Geiger counter clicks per minute. ______________ The background level is usually about 25 to 30 counts per minute. b) What is the source of this background radiation? Naturally-occurring radioactive particles in building materials and cosmic rays from outer space. c) Your instructor will bring you a weak radioactive source. Attach the Geiger counter detector to a ring stand. Place the source 10 cm from the open side of the detector and record the number of counts per minute. ____________ How many counts per minute result from this source? ______________ d) Place the source 20 cm from the detector and record the number of counts per minute. _____ How many counts per minute result from this source? _____ a) Place the source 40 cm from the detector and record the number of counts per minute. _____ How many counts per minute result from this source? _______ b) What effect does increasing the distance have on the count? The number of counts decreases as the distance from the detector
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Act11_sol - 12/12/05 Activity 11 Solutions: Ionizing...

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