Act16_sol - 2/24/05 Activity 16 Solutions: Consequences of...

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2/24/05 1 Activity 16 Solutions: Consequences of Chemical Energy 16.1 What is Particulate Pollution? Your instructor will discuss particulate pollution. 1) Sources of Particulate Pollution a) Light a candle and carefully hold a glass plate above the candle flame. What is the soot that appears on the glass made of? primarily carbon b) Your instructor will demonstrate the combustion of various materials. Predict which materials will produce the most and the least particulate pollution. Which fuel sources produce high levels of soot? Which produce low levels? P r e d i c t i o n A n s w e r Alcohol __________ __ low_ _ Natural Gas __________ __ low __ Oil __________ __ high __ Lighter fluid __________ __ high __ Wax candle __________ __ high __ c) Many filling stations sell gasohol as vehicle fuel. What is gasohol? What advantage does it have over straight gasoline as a vehicle fuel? Gasohol is gasoline that contains about 10% ethyl alcohol, which is made from corn. Adding ethyl alcohol to gasoline reduces the amount of fossil fuel necessary to power vehicles and reduces the particulate matter produced by them. d) Does an electric glow coil produce soot? __ No __ Does this mean there is no soot involved with the use of electrical energy? _ No _ Why or why not? Hydroelectric and nuclear power plants do not produce soot. Fossil fuel-burning plants do produce soot, but at the point of generation of the electricity, not at the point of its use. 2) Detecting and Removing Particulate Pollution a) Your instructor will demonstrate a laser. What is a laser beam? a beam of visible light photons all of the same wavelength and frequency How can a laser beam detect particulate pollution? visible light photons reflect off of particles in the air
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2/24/05 2 b) What is the purpose of an electrostatic precipitator? it can remove particles from the air c) How does the electrostatic precipitator work? Why does it require a high voltage? The high voltage wires ionize particles in the air, giving them a positive charge. The charged particles are attracted to the negatively charged wire. Particulate pollution is deposited on this wire. 16.2 How Do Combustion Gases Pollute? 3) Complete and Incomplete Combustion a) Which carbon-oxygen compound is produced in complete combustion reactions of hydrocarbons, such as the combustion of wood, oil, or gasoline? carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) b) What is meant by an incomplete combustion reaction? Any reaction in which the products can further react with oxygen is said to be incomplete. c) In incomplete combustion reactions, which carbon-oxygen compound is produced? carbon monoxide (CO) d) What can be done to correct incomplete combustion? In industrial settings, complete combustion of hydrocarbons is more likely in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Furnaces for heating must be properly adjusted to maximize complete combustion and minimize carbon monoxide production. 4)
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2011 for the course PHYSICS 104 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '11 term at Ohio State.

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Act16_sol - 2/24/05 Activity 16 Solutions: Consequences of...

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