Act_13 - 12/12/05 Name _ Section _ Period 13: Energy and...

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12/12/05 85 Name _________________________ Section ___________________ Period 13: Energy and Matter in the Universe 13.1 Origin of Matter in the Universe- the Big Bang 1) The Big Bang Theory and the Early Universe a) How do scientists believe that the Universe began? b) In what form was the energy of the early Universe? c) How much energy was contained in the initial Universe as compared to the amount of energy and energy that has condensed into matter in the Universe today? d) Any source of radiation is characterized by a temperature. i) What temperature characterizes radiation from the Sun? _____________ ii) What temperature characterizes radiation from the Earth? __________ iii) What temperature is believed to have characterized the early Universe? ______ e) In our study of gases, we saw that the average energy and temperature of gases are related by the constant k. (k = 1.38 x 10 – 23 J/Kelvin or 8.62 x 10 – 5 eV/Kelvin). Use this relationship to find the average energy per photon in the early Universe in units of joules and in electron volts. f) Group Discussion Question: How does the energy of an early Universe photon compare to the energy of a visible light photon from the Sun?
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12/12/05 86 2) The Expanding Universe Following the Big Bang, the Universe began expanding. We will represent the expanding Universe with an inflating balloon. a) Mark several large dots several centimeters apart on a deflated balloon. Blow up the balloon. If each dot represents a galaxy, what happens to the galaxies as the universe expands? b) Consider the view of the Universe as seen by an observer on each galaxy. Do all the galaxies appear to be receding from the observer as the Universe expands? _________ c) An elastic band attached to a board can illustrate the rate of expansion of the Universe. Initially the distance between marks on the unstretched elastic band is 1 inch. Stretch the elastic band until the 1 inch mark on the band lines up with the 2 inch mark on the ruler. When the 1 inch mark on the band is stretched to 2 inches, how far has the 2 inch mark on the band stretched? __________________________________ If this band represented the expansion of the Universe, how would the rate of expansion of distant galaxies compare to the rate of expansion of closer galaxies? d)
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Act_13 - 12/12/05 Name _ Section _ Period 13: Energy and...

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